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An English translation with original Sanskrit verses would be ideal. It should cover all aspects/teachings contained in the Nyaya philosophy.

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The defining text of the Nyaya school (one of the six Astika schools) is Gautama's Nyaya Sutras. This book by Mahamahopadhyaya Satish Chandra Vidyabhushan provides the Nyaya Sutras in Sanskrit, along with an English translation and commentary on each Sutra.

One note of caution: it's fine to read about the Nyaya school in order to learn the logical terminology and categories employed, which the other Astika schools have adapted in their arguments. But you should know that the the Vedanta school contains one crucial difference with the Nyaya school: whereas Nyaya philosophers thought they could derive the truth of the Vedas on the basis of inference or Anumana Pramana, the Vedanta school accepted the Vedas as Sabda Pramana or scriptural authority. This difference is illustrated well in the Agama Pramanya, a work by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Yamunacharya which argues for the scriptural authority of the Pancharatra texts. (You can read it here.) Yamunacharya first provides a Nyaya argument for the authority of these texts, which I discuss in my question here, but he ultimately rejects the argument in favor of an argument based on Sabda Pramana.

That epistemological point is the main point of disagreement with the Vedanta school. Apart from that, the Nyaya school agrees with the basic worldview of the Vedanta school. Also, it should be noted that the Nyaya school has a close affiliation to the Vaisheshika or atomist school, so for a good understanding of the ontology of the Nyaya you may want to also read the Vaisheshika Sutras of Kanada (not to be confused with the language Kannada!). But again it should be noted that there's a diagreement between the Vaisheshika school and the Vedanta school; the Brahma Sutras refutes the Vaisheshika belief that atoms are the ultimate cause of the Universe in Adhyaya 2 Pada 2 Sutras 11-17 here.

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I have a copy of the Bhasa Pariccheda with Siddhanta-Muktavali by Visvanatha-Nyaya-Pancanana. It is done by Swami Madhavananda with original Sanskrit, English translation and commentary. It is a manual on the Nyaya-Vaisesika philosophy. It is available through Advaita Ashrama - http://advaitaashrama.org/ and also Motilal Banarsidass - http://www.mlbd.com/

  • You can also read Epistemology Of Perception: Gangeśa’s Tattvacintāmani, Jewel Of Reflection On The Truth (About Epistemology): The Perception Chapter (Pratyaksha-khanda), Transliterated Text, Translation, And Philosophical Commentary. By STEPHEN H. PHILLIPS AND N.S. RAMANUJA TATACHARYA. – user808 Dec 18 '15 at 14:42

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