Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

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lokavat tu lila kaivalyam [Brh. Su. - 2.1.33] - The creation is merely a sport of Brahman

lokavat tu lila kaivalyam [Brahma Sutras - 2.1.33] The creation is merely a sport of Brahman. So does it look like God created us for fun?
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Why aren't all works whose authors are not known regarded as authorless (apauruṣeyā)?

Are there any refutations to this argument put forth by the Buddhist philosophers? Particularly, the one against the authorlessness of Vedas because no one remembers who their authors are? ...
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0answers
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What is ajivika?

I just heard this term from one of my friend. Tried to find more information about it, but no help. Can anyone explain it. Is it Hindu philosophy (as wiki says) or not?
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1answer
302 views

Which Acharyas believe in the two-Kapilas theory and which don't?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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0answers
874 views

Who is a Shaivite or Shaiva? What are his/her supposed qualities?

Like in this thread we find the definition & qualities of a Vaishnava, I would like to know the same for the Shaiva as well. What is the definition or qualities of a Shaiva or Shaivite.
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1answer
92 views

Why ignorance/believing causes suffering?

Ok, so I understand the concept of consciousness and it is awareness witnessing across 3 bodies namely physical, subtle and one corresponding to deep sleep. And since "we" are ignorant of it, we ...
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2answers
372 views

What scriptures describe swans separating milk from water?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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0answers
52 views

Influence of Samkhya on other darshanas

Can I say Sankhya as the oldest hindu philosophy has influenced all the other darshanas like Vedanta? That implies all astika darshanas are derivative from Sankhya, not necessarily conflicting or ...
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7answers
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Have any Hindu philosophers attempted to solve the Riddle of Epicurus?

The Epicurean Paradox or the Riddle of Epicurus goes something like this: If God is willing to prevent evil but not able, then He is not omnipotent. If He is able (to prevent evil) but not ...
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5answers
275 views

Vedas and their philosophy

As per my reading from Wikipedia, the mukhya Upanishads discuss the philosophy of vedas. The seeds of advaita and vishishtadvaita philosophies are found in these upanishads as per my limited readings. ...
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Shunya (nothingness) vs Purna (fullness) — How to reconcile the seemingly contradictive statements in Uttara Gita?

In the Uttara Gita Chapter 1, Sloka 35 describes the Atma as ऊर्ध्वशून्यमधःशून्यं मध्यशून्यं यदात्मकम् । सर्वशून्यं स आत्मेति समाधिस्थस्य लक्षणम् ॥ When (one perceives) the Atma is ...
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4answers
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Is the Sankhya Darshana/Philosophy prior to Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads?

We know that there are Six Aastika Philosophy (Shad Darshana) : Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshiki,Mimamsa and Vedanta based on Vedas. In many verses of Bhagavad Gita, the word Sankhya is found ; ...
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1answer
169 views

Hinduism v. Buddhism

What is the most important distinction between Hindu and Buddhist teachings? From comparing Hindu and Buddhist texts, I have the impression that the most important difference is Atman v. anatta. Is ...
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1answer
115 views

How is the term so'ham interpreted by different schools?

The term so'ham occurs in many upanishads like Isha upanishad etc. How do major schools like Advaita, Dvaita, Vishistadvaita and Achintya Bhedabheda interpret that?
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1answer
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Are there verses from scriptures which list 24 tattvas according to Sankhya Darshana?

As we have seen previously that Hinduism believes in the field-fielder (Kshetra–Kshetragna) theory. Prakruti is the field and Purusha is its fielder. Similarly, body is a field (kshetra) and the soul ...
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0answers
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How would dualistic schools of Vedanta (Vishistadvaitha and Dvaita) debate with a Buddhist?

As far as I know, Vishishtadvaitha and Dvaita base their arguments on Vedas. As Buddhists reject the Vedas, how would the dualistic schools of Vedanta debate with Buddhists and establish Veda ...
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0answers
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What were the salient features of Ekayana Vaishnavism (Kashmiri Vaishnavism)?

Kashmir was once a hub of Sanskrit and Indian philosophies or traditions like Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Buddhism etc. In ancient times, a tradition called Kashmiri Vaishnavism also flourished which was ...
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1answer
73 views

Is there anything in our scriptures where it says something similar to “As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he”

I've read the major parts of the Bhagavad Gita where my interpretation is that 'Anyone who is attached to the FRUITS of the reward, he will dwell in misery always'. Now I'm reading many books like '...
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2answers
398 views

What is the means of attaining Moksha according to the different Astika schools?

There are two kinds of schools of Indian philosophy, Astika and Nastika. Astikas accept the authority of the Vedas, whereas Nastikas reject the authority of the Vedas. The Astika schools are part ...
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1answer
83 views

Is this statement supported or contradicted by the scriptures?

I read an opinion in a book that states All the doctrines (or 'Vada-s like Advaitavada, Vishistadvaitavada, Dvaitavada, Achintyabhedabhedavada etc) are partial truths because these are expressed by ...
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0answers
75 views

Six Hindu philosophical systems and Puranas

There are six philosophical systems in Hinduism: Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta. What is each school's opinion on Puranas? Do they accept the puranas as authentic or they ...
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0answers
121 views

Have Hindu philosophies dealt with subjective vs. objective pramana (evidence)?

For example, most people who have eaten a mango will say it tastes sweet. Suppose a foreign person visiting India has never tasted a mango. He has also been advised by his countrymen that bright-...
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0answers
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Is religion different from science ? Especially when it comes to falsifiability of claims?

Scientists claim that the underlying notion of a science is falsifiability i.e. the ability to disprove a statement via performing an experiment. Rishis claim that the underlying notion of religion ...
6
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1answer
168 views

Why do Advaitins strive to realize Brahman if only Brahman exists?

If, as Advaitins say, only Brahman ultimately exists then why do saints like Shankaracharyas and others strive to realise Brahman and for that live an austere life? After all, in Advaita Brahman ...
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0answers
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Why was Varna formalised?

My understanding is that caste is not a legitimate Hindu concept and that it is varna instead. From what I’ve read, varna is like the division of labour within society, but my question is, why was ...
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0answers
593 views

Do any commentators other than Adi Shankaracharya disagree with both Pancharatra and Shaiva Agamas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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0answers
77 views

According to advaitins, which brahma sutra says that the world is mithya?

Advaitins believe that the world is mithya. There are advaita commentaries on the brahmasutras, most notably by Shankara himself. So according to advaitins, which brahmasutra or sutras say that the ...
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0answers
93 views

On the existence of the gods and the relevance of prayer [duplicate]

I am a European philosophically convinced by Hindu metaphysics (more particularly by advaita vedanta in the tradition of Adi Shankara that I discovered via René Guénon). I say this to explain that I ...
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0answers
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Why (and more importantly how) does Brihaspati always win? [closed]

Why and How does Brihaspati (Jupiter) always win even though Shukracharya (Venus) is much smarter and skillful? Is there any philosophy here that can be transferred to astrology when it comes ...
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0answers
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Where can we get the Nyaya Sutras along with their commentaries in English translation?

Everyone knows how important the Nyaya Sutras are for Indian philosophy. Indeed, it is impossible to imagine a work of greater influence than this in the history of Indian thought. It is virtually the ...
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0answers
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Where can I get the works of Jayatirtha and Vyasatirtha in English translation?

Jayatirtha and Vyasatirtha, two extremely brilliant philosophers of Vedanta, have been characterized by countless scholars both from the East and West as presenting "the highest dialectical skill in ...
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1answer
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How are jivas (linga/sookshma sharirs) created as per Advaita?

As per advaita, jivas are nothing but Linga sharira or sookskhma sharira. This has been explained to me by user Pradip Gangopadhyaya before. But I need to know how are jivas created. Advaita ...
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1answer
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Is hetuvāda now a derogatory term? In what context did Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata use the word?

The Monier Williams dictionary defines hetuvāda as: हेतु--वाद m. a statement of reasons or arguments, assigning a cause, disputation MBh. R. I see two sources next to the meaning: MBh. ...
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1answer
103 views

How did the Purva Mimamsa school explain Gotras?

If the Purva Mimamsa school believes that the Earth and humans are eternal, then how does it explain ancestral Gotras, such descendants of Bharadwaj, Angirasa, etc?
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Does Shiva or Vishnu or Trikaladarshi Yogi know our Aagami Karma or our free will?

Aagami Karma is actions we do in this birth. This is generally said to be free will. See this question: Is our destiny predetermined? If yes, then why do our actions affect our karma?. Does Shiva or ...
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0answers
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What are ashtapathi, panchapathi and tarangi in bhajans?

What are ashtapathi, panchapathi and tarangi in bhajans? Whose compositions are comprised in them and how many bhajan songs are compiled in them ?
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2answers
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How does Shri Adi Shankaracharya or any Advaiti establish anumana as pramana, as the whole world is Mithyatmaka and is Maya?

I know that Charuvakas only accept Pratyaksha. Dvaithis and Vishishtadvaithis accept Pratyaksha, Anumana and Agama(Shabdha). But I was kind of surprised to know that Advaithis accept all the six ...
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1answer
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How are the object and the subject one and the same?

I basically wanted the proof of all is ONE and Prakrithi and Purusha are the same.
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1answer
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Have Hindu Philosophers attempted to solve problem of improbability of a creator him/her/it being more complex?

I know that many hindu philosphers believe God can be known only through scriptures. Brahma sutras also try to explain logically about nature of brahman etc.. Any place where the problem of ...
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0answers
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Which Sri Vaishnava works discuss Parashara’s Sharanagati for all Jivas?

The Sri Vaishnava sect has two sub-sects, Thenkalai and Vadakalai. Vadakalais follow the teachings of Vedanta Desikan, whereas Thenkalais follow the teachings of Pillai Lokacharya. My question is ...
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0answers
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Is everything fixed and I (as a limited individual) am not the doer in spite of Heisenberg's uncertainty? [duplicate]

Is everything fixed in spite of Heisenberg's uncertainty and the so called 'doer-ship of limited individuals'? Is there free-will or is life just a movie that we are forced to watch?
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2answers
518 views

The concept of God in Bhakti Yoga

From three classical yogas in Hinduism viz. Karma, Bhakti and Jnana, I found me Ajnani in case of Bhakti yoga probably due to improper concept of god. I understand the Karma Yoga: Nishkam Karma or ...
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5answers
2k views

I want scripture-based explanation for “God is Everywhere”

Most dominant philosophy in Hinduism is that God is everywhere and in everything. I want to understand this in more detail. As per science we know that around us there are two distinct things: Space-...
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0answers
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What are the philosophical differences between Vishishtadvaita Vedanta and Shivadvaita Vedanta?

Vishishtadvaita, as we know, is a Vedantic philosophy propogated by the renowned Sripad Ramanujacharya. The philosophy is subscribed mainly by Sri Vaishnavas, Ramanandi Vaishnavas and Swaminarayan ...
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How does Vedanta Desikan interpret Ramanujacharya’s statement about Brihaspati’s brother Samvarta?

The Satadhusani is a work by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Vedanta Desikan consisting of 100 refutations of Adi Shankaracharya's philosophy of Advaita. One chapter of the work is devoted to refuting the ...
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0answers
41 views

Vaisheshika’s conception of motion

In Vaisheshika’s theory of motion, is it mentioned any where that an object will move on forever if there is nothing to offer resistance to exhaust it’s “vega”? Like an object moving through space/...
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0answers
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What are all the empirical observations made by Kaṇāda in his Vaiśeṣika Sūtras?

Kaṇāda, the natural scientist and philosopher, appears to have studied nature, made some direct observations and recorded them in his Vaiśeṣika Sūtras. Wikipedia lists a few but I want to know all of ...
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5answers
348 views

Who are the pseudo-advaitins referred to by Shringeri Acharya? Does Adi Shankara state characteristics of true advaitins?

Sri Sringeri Sharadha Peetham has a free ebook to download here. In that book, the following statement is made by the then Shakaracharya, H.H Abhinava Vidyatheertha Mahaswami. In the page 556 of the ...
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0answers
240 views

What was samkhya's criticism on vedanta?

From a site I read the following passage of strong criticism on Sankara's Vedanta. Later philosophers also declared Mayavada to be crypto-Buddhism. The Sankhya philosopher Vijnana-bhiksu (1550–1600 ...
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0answers
52 views

Who was the king who argued with Adi Shankaracharya using karma siddantha (law of karma)?

What is the name of the king who debated with Adi Shankaracharya against Advaita and supporting karma siddhantha (law of karma)? Which authentic text contains the discussion between them?