Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

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4
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1answer
117 views

On Samkhya and Individuality. How many purushas are there?

Sāmkhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities, puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter). "It 'enumerates' twenty five Tattvas or true principles; and its chief object is ...
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2answers
53 views

How I can refute Madhyamaka- Shunyata?

Have any Hindu acharyas debunked shunyata as propounded by Madhyamika? I am a former Tibetan Buddhist, and to my knowledge emptiness depends on co-dependant arising,if we refute that then all of ...
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2answers
538 views

Are all men created equal according to Hinduism? Is this predominant western belief in agreement with the Vedas?

Are all men created equal according to Hinduism? Is this predominant western belief based on the Vedas? This belief is fundamental to most modern Western countries, and it is the second sentence of ...
5
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3answers
99 views

Difference between Deep sleep and Death!

please explain what happens to our body or what is the difference between deep sleep and death? (as mentioned in vedas or upanishads or any of our Hindu literature)
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1answer
83 views

Are we God in a state of forgetfulness? Reference needed

I have heard this idea which I think it comes from the Upanishads. Can anybody give a a reference in the Vedas, Gita or any other literature from Hinduism in which existential ignorance is explained.
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2answers
108 views

Advaita vedanta and stoicism ; are they compatible with each other?

I always think that Advaita vedanta and stoicism are perfectly compatible with one another. Can some expand on this?
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1answer
50 views

Who is the culprit of all this Prapancha when I was, is and shall continue to be ONE?

Who was responsible or what was responsible for making me forget who I am? How did this Universe start when there were no two? How did I separate myself from myself and create this Prapancha?
4
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2answers
194 views

Why aren't all works whose authors are not known regarded as authorless (apauruṣeyā)?

Are there any refutations to this argument put forth by the Buddhist philosophers? Particularly, the one against the authorlessness of Vedas because no one remembers who their authors are? ...
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20 views

Is getting punished or getting rewarded is decided by God when we do something? [duplicate]

My Maths teacher would always say,: "It's Karma Philosophy. If you do good, good will happen. If you do bad, bad will happen. If you pray, the God will listen to your prayer. If you ask anything from ...
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1answer
1k views

Who is a Shaivite or Shaiva? What are his/her supposed qualities?

Like in this thread we find the definition & qualities of a Vaishnava, I would like to know the same for the Shaiva as well. What is the definition or qualities of a Shaiva or Shaivite.
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7answers
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Does Science contradict Hinduism? How to deal with scientific discoveries that don't line up with Vedas?

I would like to know if Hinduism and science contradict each other. This is an issue that arises in many religions, the most prominent example being Christianity and its disagreement with evolution. ...
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2answers
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Is there a second to me? Are you (seperate from me) real?

Atma is one no doubt, but the people around me also have the same athma and the rest of individuality left in them is jada. Does the person reading this question have any separate existence from ME? ...
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2answers
122 views

How are jivas (linga/sookshma sharirs) created as per Advaita?

As per advaita, jivas are nothing but Linga sharira or sookskhma sharira. This has been explained to me by user Pradip Gangopadhyaya before. But I need to know how are jivas created. Advaita ...
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0answers
74 views

What was the opinion of Swami Dayanand Saraswati about the Purva Mimamsa?

What was the opinion of Swami Dayanand Saraswati, founder of Arya Samaj, about the Purva Mimamsa?
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4answers
240 views

What is Advaita?

(Using the "body" and "hand" instead of "Brahman" and "Atman") Ramanuja says, "the hand is the same as the body but the hand is not the body itself". Madhu says, "the hand is not the body and the ...
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2answers
487 views

What is the earliest Hindu work refuting Mleccha religions or philosophies?

There are two kinds of schools of Indian philosophy, Astika and Nastika. Astikas accept the authority of the Vedas, whereas Nastikas reject the authority of the Vedas. The Astika schools are part of ...
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3answers
167 views

Why ignorance/believing causes suffering?

Ok, so I understand the concept of consciousness and it is awareness witnessing across 3 bodies namely physical, subtle and one corresponding to deep sleep. And since "we" are ignorant of it, we ...
16
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3answers
2k views

Why is Sankaracharya accused as Pracchana Bauddha (crypto-buddhist) by many Vedantins?

Let us see some of the accusations of vedantins SANKARA’S ACCUSERS Bhaskara (9th Century CE), the propounder of bhedabheda-siddhanta was one of the earliest Indian philosophers to attack Mayavada. ...
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1answer
69 views

Books recommended for learning about all of the different branches of Sanatana philosophy in brief

Which books do you recommend for learning about all of the different branches of Sanatana philosophy in brief? I have a copy of Sarva Darsana Sangraha written by 14th century Hindu scholar Madhava ...
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0answers
58 views

Books recommended to learn about atheist and/or agnostic schools of Sanatana Dharma in details

Which books do you recommend to learn about atheist and/or agnostic schools of Sanatana Dharma? I haven't got any good references. I have heard about the book known as Sarva Darsana Sangraha written ...
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1answer
134 views

How do dvaitins interpret this verse from Bhagavad Gita?

In chapter 8.21, Krishna Paramatma says that eternal unmanifest abode as supreme abode of him and never mentions any separate place as his abode. Bhagavad Gita chapter 8, verse 21: That supreme ...
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2answers
110 views

What makes a person a Hindu? [duplicate]

In Hinduism we have monotheists as well as polytheists. We do not have same deities and same customs. Does one become Hindu by accepting supremacy of Vedas? We don't have a single book like other ...
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2answers
550 views

lokavat tu lila kaivalyam [Brh. Su. - 2.1.33] - The creation is merely a sport of Brahman

lokavat tu lila kaivalyam [Brahma Sutras - 2.1.33] The creation is merely a sport of Brahman. So does it look like God created us for fun?
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What is ajivika?

I just heard this term from one of my friend. Tried to find more information about it, but no help. Can anyone explain it. Is it Hindu philosophy (as wiki says) or not?
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1answer
321 views

Which Acharyas believe in the two-Kapilas theory and which don't?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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2answers
445 views

What scriptures describe swans separating milk from water?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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0answers
58 views

Influence of Samkhya on other darshanas

Can I say Sankhya as the oldest hindu philosophy has influenced all the other darshanas like Vedanta? That implies all astika darshanas are derivative from Sankhya, not necessarily conflicting or ...
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7answers
628 views

Have any Hindu philosophers attempted to solve the Riddle of Epicurus?

The Epicurean Paradox or the Riddle of Epicurus goes something like this: If God is willing to prevent evil but not able, then He is not omnipotent. If He is able (to prevent evil) but not ...
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5answers
283 views

Vedas and their philosophy

As per my reading from Wikipedia, the mukhya Upanishads discuss the philosophy of vedas. The seeds of advaita and vishishtadvaita philosophies are found in these upanishads as per my limited readings. ...
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Shunya (nothingness) vs Purna (fullness) — How to reconcile the seemingly contradictive statements in Uttara Gita?

In the Uttara Gita Chapter 1, Sloka 35 describes the Atma as ऊर्ध्वशून्यमधःशून्यं मध्यशून्यं यदात्मकम् । सर्वशून्यं स आत्मेति समाधिस्थस्य लक्षणम् ॥ When (one perceives) the Atma is ...
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4answers
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Is the Sankhya Darshana/Philosophy prior to Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads?

We know that there are Six Aastika Philosophy (Shad Darshana) : Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshiki,Mimamsa and Vedanta based on Vedas. In many verses of Bhagavad Gita, the word Sankhya is found ; ...
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1answer
186 views

Hinduism v. Buddhism

What is the most important distinction between Hindu and Buddhist teachings? From comparing Hindu and Buddhist texts, I have the impression that the most important difference is Atman v. anatta. Is ...
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1answer
118 views

How is the term so'ham interpreted by different schools?

The term so'ham occurs in many upanishads like Isha upanishad etc. How do major schools like Advaita, Dvaita, Vishistadvaita and Achintya Bhedabheda interpret that?
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1answer
85 views

Are there verses from scriptures which list 24 tattvas according to Sankhya Darshana?

As we have seen previously that Hinduism believes in the field-fielder (Kshetra–Kshetragna) theory. Prakruti is the field and Purusha is its fielder. Similarly, body is a field (kshetra) and the soul ...
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0answers
288 views

How would dualistic schools of Vedanta (Vishistadvaitha and Dvaita) debate with a Buddhist?

As far as I know, Vishishtadvaitha and Dvaita base their arguments on Vedas. As Buddhists reject the Vedas, how would the dualistic schools of Vedanta debate with Buddhists and establish Veda ...
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0answers
149 views

What were the salient features of Ekayana Vaishnavism (Kashmiri Vaishnavism)?

Kashmir was once a hub of Sanskrit and Indian philosophies or traditions like Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Buddhism etc. In ancient times, a tradition called Kashmiri Vaishnavism also flourished which was ...
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1answer
83 views

Is there anything in our scriptures where it says something similar to “As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he”

I've read the major parts of the Bhagavad Gita where my interpretation is that 'Anyone who is attached to the FRUITS of the reward, he will dwell in misery always'. Now I'm reading many books like '...
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2answers
426 views

What is the means of attaining Moksha according to the different Astika schools?

There are two kinds of schools of Indian philosophy, Astika and Nastika. Astikas accept the authority of the Vedas, whereas Nastikas reject the authority of the Vedas. The Astika schools are part ...
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1answer
86 views

Is this statement supported or contradicted by the scriptures?

I read an opinion in a book that states All the doctrines (or 'Vada-s like Advaitavada, Vishistadvaitavada, Dvaitavada, Achintyabhedabhedavada etc) are partial truths because these are expressed by ...
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0answers
75 views

Six Hindu philosophical systems and Puranas

There are six philosophical systems in Hinduism: Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta. What is each school's opinion on Puranas? Do they accept the puranas as authentic or they ...
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127 views

Have Hindu philosophies dealt with subjective vs. objective pramana (evidence)?

For example, most people who have eaten a mango will say it tastes sweet. Suppose a foreign person visiting India has never tasted a mango. He has also been advised by his countrymen that bright-...
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Is religion different from science ? Especially when it comes to falsifiability of claims?

Scientists claim that the underlying notion of a science is falsifiability i.e. the ability to disprove a statement via performing an experiment. Rishis claim that the underlying notion of religion ...
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1answer
173 views

Why do Advaitins strive to realize Brahman if only Brahman exists?

If, as Advaitins say, only Brahman ultimately exists then why do saints like Shankaracharyas and others strive to realise Brahman and for that live an austere life? After all, in Advaita Brahman ...
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0answers
44 views

Why was Varna formalised?

My understanding is that caste is not a legitimate Hindu concept and that it is varna instead. From what I’ve read, varna is like the division of labour within society, but my question is, why was ...
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0answers
618 views

Do any commentators other than Adi Shankaracharya disagree with both Pancharatra and Shaiva Agamas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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0answers
80 views

According to advaitins, which brahma sutra says that the world is mithya?

Advaitins believe that the world is mithya. There are advaita commentaries on the brahmasutras, most notably by Shankara himself. So according to advaitins, which brahmasutra or sutras say that the ...
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0answers
93 views

On the existence of the gods and the relevance of prayer [duplicate]

I am a European philosophically convinced by Hindu metaphysics (more particularly by advaita vedanta in the tradition of Adi Shankara that I discovered via René Guénon). I say this to explain that I ...
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0answers
46 views

Where can we get the Nyaya Sutras along with their commentaries in English translation?

Everyone knows how important the Nyaya Sutras are for Indian philosophy. Indeed, it is impossible to imagine a work of greater influence than this in the history of Indian thought. It is virtually the ...
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Where can I get the works of Jayatirtha and Vyasatirtha in English translation?

Jayatirtha and Vyasatirtha, two extremely brilliant philosophers of Vedanta, have been characterized by countless scholars both from the East and West as presenting "the highest dialectical skill in ...
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1answer
132 views

Is hetuvāda now a derogatory term? In what context did Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata use the word?

The Monier Williams dictionary defines hetuvāda as: हेतु--वाद m. a statement of reasons or arguments, assigning a cause, disputation MBh. R. I see two sources next to the meaning: MBh. ...