Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

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What percentage of Hindus belong to a sect that subscribes to the Vedanta school?

Indian schools of philosophy are traditionally divided into two categories, Astika and Nastika. Astika schools accept the authority of the Vedas as divinely revealed truth (shruti), whereas Nastika ...
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2answers
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Was the Purva mimansa an atheist school?

Why purva mimansa school did not believe in existence of vedic gods but were strict believers of Vedas?
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1answer
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Is there any scripture that tells story about Lord Vishnu and MahaVishnu?

As per the Shiva Purana, there is a main God Shiva who is Nirakara and thereafter his physical manifestation who is known as Shankara. I know that different Hindu texts about different Gods treat ...
14
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1answer
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Difference between Smartas and Advaitins?

What is the difference between a Smarta and an Advaitin? Both are the followers of Adi Sankaracharya only. People who worship Lord Shiva are called Shaivite and those who worship Lord Vishnu are ...
14
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1answer
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What is Shakti Visishtadvaita philosophy?

Does any one know what this(Shakti Visishtadvaita) philosophy is all about? I know what are dvaita, advaita philosophies but this is new one.
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1answer
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Whose commentaries on the Vedas and Upanishads are most followed?

There are many people who write commentaries on the Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita etc. Whose commentaries is most followed. Also where can I get all of those Upanishads and Vedas in English? ...
17
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2answers
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Dvaita vs Advaita vs Vishistadvaita vs Shuddhadvaita vs any other

I hear these terms Dvaita, Advaita, Vishistadvaita, Shuddhadvaita, and may be any other XYZdvaita, etc in most of the questions but I am not very sure what do they refer to. Are these some communities ...
6
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1answer
939 views

What commentary on the Brahma Sutras does the Saiva Siddhanta Church support?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here) ...
17
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3answers
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What is the difference between Thenkalai and Vadakalai sects of Sri Vaishnavism?

For those who do not know, there are two main sects of Sri Vaishnavism: Thenkalai and Vadakalai. The Vadakalai sect wear their namam, or thiruman, in a "U" shaped pattern with manjal or yellow like ...
8
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0answers
599 views

What is the Nyaya argument for Karma being the instrumental cause of the Universe?

The Agama Pramanya is a work by the famous Sri Vaishnava Acharya Yamunacharya arguing that the Pancharatra texts, which are foundational to mainstream Vaishnavism as I discuss here, are legitimate ...
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Why do Vadakalai Sri Vaishnavas believe that Advaita liberation is not eternal?

Members of the Sri Vaishnava sect of Hinduism, especially the Iyengars (Sri Vaishnavas who are Brahmanas), are divided into two sub-sects, Thenkalais and Vadakalais. These two sub-sects both agree on ...
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2answers
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Does “Free Will” really exist, even if universe repeats itself in perfect pattern?

The concept of universe repeating itself is similar to philosophy of Eternal Return. Such philosophy is subscribed many ancient Indian philosophers as well. In brief: A finitely timed universe ...
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4answers
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According to ShankarAchArya in Advaita, is the universe “unreal” or “unworthy”?

Recently I came across one of the key quote, which sums up Adi ShankarAchArya's Advaita philosophy: The Brahman of the Upanishads is the only Reality, and everything else—this world of manifoldness—...
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5answers
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I want scripture-based explanation for “God is Everywhere”

Most dominant philosophy in Hinduism is that God is everywhere and in everything. I want to understand this in more detail. As per science we know that around us there are two distinct things: Space-...
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5answers
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Why does God allow us to suffer?

If God is a force of good then why is there so much suffering in this world? I thought I had understood the answer to this question after watching this video. Basically it says that if we ...
5
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1answer
324 views

Why did Vedvyasa mention his shishya Jaimini's opinion/saying in Brahma Sutra?

I started reading the BrahmaSutra and have completed 1.2. I found Vedavyasa mentions Jaimini in his sutra: साक्षादप्यविरोधं जैमिनिः।।1.2.28।। Jaimini (declares that there is) no contradiction ...
3
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1answer
404 views

Which Shaivite sect believes God is the operator of the Universe but not the source?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
13
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4answers
11k views

What is the difference between Buddhi (बुद्धि) and Mann (मन)?

I know Buddhi (बुद्धि) means intelligence/intellect and Mann (मन) means mind. But what is difference between them?
9
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0answers
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Where is this Srimad Bhagavatam verse about the different forms of Moksha?

According to Vaishnavism, there are six kinds of liberation from Samsara (the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth). They're each defined in relation to Vishnu, since Vaishnavas consider Vishnu to be ...
9
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1answer
549 views

Are there any surviving quotes from Baudhayana's commentary on the Brahma Sutras?

The most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by Vyasa which summarizes the philosophical teachings ...
11
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1answer
627 views

What are the Kashmir Agamas defended in Yamunacharya's lost work?

As I discuss in this answer, one of the early movements that was important to the development of Vaishnavism was the ancient Pancharatra movement, whose sacred texts or Agamas consisted of detailed ...
7
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0answers
281 views

Do any commentaries on the Brahma Sutras say that animal sacrifice is immoral?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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3answers
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Why is Sankaracharya accused as Pracchana Bauddha (crypto-buddhist) by many Vedantins?

Let us see some of the accusations of vedantins SANKARA’S ACCUSERS Bhaskara (9th Century CE), the propounder of bhedabheda-siddhanta was one of the earliest Indian philosophers to attack Mayavada. ...
3
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1answer
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What is the story of Vikhanasa, founder of the Vaikhanasa school?

As I discuss in this question, one of the early movements that was important in the development of Vaishnavism was the ancient Pancharatra movement, whose sacred texts consisted of detailed procedures ...
7
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5answers
704 views

Is every Jeeva “eternal” like the ultimate God (nirguna Brahman) or “temporary” within cycle?

"Temporary" vs "Eternal": "Temporary" (may be sat-asat) means, something which keeps changing. It survives by repetition. "Eternal" (may be param akshara) means, with respect to which all these ...
7
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0answers
345 views

How do Dvaitins interpret the Advaita-sounding prayer of Prahlada?

In this chapter of the Vishnu Purana, Prahlada is thrown off a cliff and into the sea by Hiranyakashipu's men. Unfazed by this, he prays to Vishnu: I glorify the supreme deity Vishńu, the ...
14
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5answers
425 views

Why isn't there one Absolute Reality?

This is just to elicit opinion/discussion. There is no ''answer" to it really. You can choose to close it. But it is something that I always wondered about. In the annals of Sanaatana Dharma why isn'...
7
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1answer
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Similarities and differences in the four vedas

What are the similarities and differences in Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharvana Vedas? To my knowledge maximum come from Yajur Veda. Next comes Rig. Third place for Sama and the last for Atharvana. Do the ...
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0answers
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Do any commentators other than Adi Shankaracharya disagree with both Pancharatra and Shaiva Agamas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
7
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1answer
189 views

How do different Astika schools prove the existence of God?

There are two kinds of schools of Indian philosophy, Astika and Nastika. Astikas accept the authority of the Vedas, whereas Nastikas reject the authority of the Vedas. The Astika schools are part ...
2
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1answer
202 views

Do all Vedantic philosophies agree on the number of Pramanas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
13
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1answer
420 views

What are all doctrines or philosophies discussed in Brahma Sutra?

Brahma Sutras (also known as Vedanta Sutras) have very profound significance in Vedanta Darshan. They systematize and summarize the spiritual and philosophical teaching of Upanishads. It is considered ...
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3answers
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K.S. Bhagavan's critique of Adi Shankara

An Indian writer named K.S. Bhagavan published in 1982 a book entitled Shankaracharya and Reactionary Philosophy = ಶಂಕರಾಚಾರ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರತಿಗಾಮಿತನ. I heard that Bhagavan criticized Adi Shankara in ...
7
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1answer
846 views

Which Āstika schools mention the different types of Muktis?

Which Āstika schools mention these different types of muktis: Sārūpya, Sālokya, Sārṣṭi, Sāmīpya, Sāyujya, Viśate, Kaivalya, Moksha Are there more types of muktis in āstika schools? Which types of ...
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4answers
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Can a person change his caste in Hinduism?

Each person born as a Hindu has some caste attached to him. As per my understanding he remains in the same caste throughout his life. Currently, I don't think anybody can change his/her caste, but was ...
8
votes
1answer
379 views

How do the different Hindu sects complete the line “Sri Bhagavat Agna”?

Before you do any Hindu ritual, you're supposed to begin by saying the Sankalpam, a formulaic utterance in which you tell the gods where you're located in the universe, the time and date when you're ...
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0answers
633 views

What kings passed on the Panchagni Vidya of the Upanishads?

As I discuss in the this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage ...
3
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5answers
3k views

What scriptures describe the fifth state called Turiyatita?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they are actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
2
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0answers
1k views

What was Madhvacharya's argument against the Shaktas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
10
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4answers
4k views

Do the Trimurti (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva) cleanly map onto the 3 gunas (sattva, rajas, tamas)?

I've read Shiva referred to as "tamasic", and Brahma seems to be a suitable embodiment of sattva. However, rajas doesn't fit very well here. I'm not sure how to match the energy/activity aspects of ...
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2answers
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What are Vivartavada and Ajatavada?

In some text relating to advaita I've found two Vada(वाद) i.e doctrine/thesis: Vivartavada (विवर्तवाद) Ajatavada (अजातवाद) I also found some mention Advaita Vedanta as Vivartavada. So, I want to ...
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4answers
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Did Swami Vivekananda, Paramhamsa Yogananda, & Osho Rajneesh really attain Moksha according to Vedic scriptures? [duplicate]

Below slokas from the Gita are actually a bit mystical in nature: BG 8.23-8.26 — O best of the Bhāratas, I shall now explain to you the different times at which, passing away from this world, ...
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2answers
232 views

If God is both omniscient and omnibenevolent, then, why do we need to pray?

The question I asked earlier on the Riddle of Epicurus was really a question on God's omnipotence and omnibenevolence, but here, I want to ask about God's omniscience and omnibenevolence. If God is ...
7
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1answer
726 views

Who developed the terminology of the Prasthanatrayi of the Vedanta school?

The most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. Vedanta derives its teachings from three sources or authorities, known as the Prasthanatrayi or three starting points: The ...
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2answers
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Shadripu in Hindu texts

What is the source of the concept of Shadripu (six enemies) in Hindu philosophy, i.e., which Hindu religious text first described the Shadripu (षड्रिपु)? From Wikipedia : Shadripu (Sanskrit: षड्रि...
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2answers
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Did Kumarila Bhatta believe in Nishkama Karma as a valid means to Moksha?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
9
votes
2answers
415 views

What is the Advaita argument for why causes can't have real existence?

The Khandana Khanda Khadya is a work by the 12th century Advaitin philosopher Shri Harsha which seeks to demonstrate that all supposed means of knowledge are invalid. As I discuss in this question, ...
6
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1answer
302 views

Which Acharyas believe in the two-Kapilas theory and which don't?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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0answers
422 views

How does Purva Mimamsa explain mentions of human beings in the eternal Vedas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
2
votes
0answers
182 views

Does the Purva Mimamsa school believe that Brahman can be known through the senses or reason?

As I discuss in this answer, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...