Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

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What are the various forms of Vishnu according to Pancharatra?

Recently while reading Prasthana Bheda of Madhusudan Sarasvati, I found he mentioned four forms of Vishnu according to Pancharatra: Quoting from sanskritdocuments.org: एवं वैष्णवं नारदादिभिः कृतं ...
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Do any commentators other than Adi Shankaracharya disagree with both Pancharatra and Shaiva Agamas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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Who is a Shaivite or Shaiva? What are his/her supposed qualities?

Like in this thread we find the definition & qualities of a Vaishnava, I would like to know the same for the Shaiva as well. What is the definition or qualities of a Shaiva or Shaivite.
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What are the different Vaishnava interpretations on the nature of Lord Vishnu's physical form?

I understand that Lord Vishnu's body is aprakrita, composed of sat-chit-ananda, but is it understood to have a physical reality? i.e. four arms, two legs, one head, two eyes, five fingered hands, ie, ...
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Where does the Advaitin commentator Anandagiri discuss the authenticity of Hindu stories?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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313 views

What is Ramanujacharya's argument that the Upanishads must be true if they grant Moksha?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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697 views

Where is this Srimad Bhagavatam verse about the different forms of Moksha?

According to Vaishnavism, there are six kinds of liberation from Samsara (the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth). They're each defined in relation to Vishnu, since Vaishnavas consider Vishnu to be ...
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Is religion different from science ? Especially when it comes to falsifiability of claims?

Scientists claim that the underlying notion of a science is falsifiability i.e. the ability to disprove a statement via performing an experiment. Rishis claim that the underlying notion of religion ...
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169 views

What does Madhvacharya mean by the Jiva “half-entering” Brahman during fainting?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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How does Ramanujacharya interpret a quote from Upavarsha's ancient Vritti?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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599 views

What is the Nyaya argument for Karma being the instrumental cause of the Universe?

The Agama Pramanya is a work by the famous Sri Vaishnava Acharya Yamunacharya arguing that the Pancharatra texts, which are foundational to mainstream Vaishnavism as I discuss here, are legitimate ...
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How would dualistic schools of Vedanta (Vishistadvaitha and Dvaita) debate with a Buddhist?

As far as I know, Vishishtadvaitha and Dvaita base their arguments on Vedas. As Buddhists reject the Vedas, how would the dualistic schools of Vedanta debate with Buddhists and establish Veda ...
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Which Sri Vaishnava works discuss Parashara’s Sharanagati for all Jivas?

The Sri Vaishnava sect has two sub-sects, Thenkalai and Vadakalai. Vadakalais follow the teachings of Vedanta Desikan, whereas Thenkalais follow the teachings of Pillai Lokacharya. My question is ...
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How does Vedanta Desikan interpret Ramanujacharya’s statement about Brihaspati’s brother Samvarta?

The Satadhusani is a work by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Vedanta Desikan consisting of 100 refutations of Adi Shankaracharya's philosophy of Advaita. One chapter of the work is devoted to refuting the ...
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What were the salient features of Ekayana Vaishnavism (Kashmiri Vaishnavism)?

Kashmir was once a hub of Sanskrit and Indian philosophies or traditions like Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Buddhism etc. In ancient times, a tradition called Kashmiri Vaishnavism also flourished which was ...
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Shunya (nothingness) vs Purna (fullness) — How to reconcile the seemingly contradictive statements in Uttara Gita?

In the Uttara Gita Chapter 1, Sloka 35 describes the Atma as ऊर्ध्वशून्यमधःशून्यं मध्यशून्यं यदात्मकम् । सर्वशून्यं स आत्मेति समाधिस्थस्य लक्षणम् ॥ When (one perceives) the Atma is ...
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Why did the Vaisheshika school believe 100 quadrillion is the largest number?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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Is Adi Shankaracharya's commentary on the Adhyatma Patala available online in English?

It is well-known that Adi Shankaracharya wrote commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishada, the Brahma Sutras, and the Vishnu Sahasranamam. But there's one commentary that's not as well known. ...
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What Mleccha languages are used in the Vedas according to Purva Mimamsa?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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127 views

Who are the Visaraga Yogis condemned by the Vaikhanasas?

As I discuss in this answer, one of the early movements that was important to the development of Vaishnavism was the ancient Pancharatra movement, whose sacred texts consisted of detailed procedures ...
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Has anyone responded to Ramanujacharya's refutation of the Cosmological Argument for the existence of God?

In Western philosophy, one of the most common arguments for the existence of God is the cosmological argument, which states roughly that everything has a cause, and so the Universe must have a cause, ...
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429 views

What is the difference between Raudra and Saumya sects of Shaivism?

The term "Shaivite" is often overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they are actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and ...
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281 views

Do any commentaries on the Brahma Sutras say that animal sacrifice is immoral?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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345 views

How do Dvaitins interpret the Advaita-sounding prayer of Prahlada?

In this chapter of the Vishnu Purana, Prahlada is thrown off a cliff and into the sea by Hiranyakashipu's men. Unfazed by this, he prays to Vishnu: I glorify the supreme deity Vishńu, the ...
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What are the differences in teachings between Yoga Vasista, Ashtavakra Gita, and Vivekachudamani?

Yoga Vasistha (योग-वासिष्ठ), Ashtavakra Gita (अष्टावक्रगीता), and Vivekachudamani (विवेकचूडामणि) are teachings about Enlightenment and (Moh)Maya. What are the Philosophical differences between these ...
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Which scripture claims to be essence of all Aranyakas?

Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text parts – the Samhitas, the Aranyakas, the Brahmanas, and the Upanishads. Now, Essence of all Samhitas --> compiled as Devata Kanda Sutras ...
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Did the Purva Mimamsa school think the Devas have no intelligence?

Udayana's Nyaya Kusumanjali is a Nyaya-Vaisheshika work which seeks to logically prove the existence of God. In this excerpt from the Nyaya Kusumanjali, Udayana describes how the Prana Pratishtha ...
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221 views

What is the story of the Pishacha who overheard the Bhagavad Gita?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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195 views

What is the Suryakanta gem that produces fire from sunlight?

I've come across multiple scriptures and works of Acharyas which describe a Suryakanta gem, which seems to act like a magnifying glass, using sunlight to produce fire. Here's what this chapter of the ...
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Did Vyasa and Baudhayana believe in 10 Pramanas and 8 Pramanas respectively?

The Manimekalai is a 6th century Tamil epic poem composed by the Buddhist poet Chithalai Chathanar. It talks about philosophy a lot, which given its early date means that it gives a rare glimpse into ...
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Which Shaiva Agamas does Appayya Dikshitar consider anti-Vedic?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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187 views

What scriptures describe toads being found in the heart of solid rocks?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
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239 views

Where do the Vedas say the cows of the gods walk on their backs?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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398 views

Has Bhaskara's second-oldest Brahma Sutra Bhashya ever been translated into English?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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Have Hindu philosophies dealt with subjective vs. objective pramana (evidence)?

For example, most people who have eaten a mango will say it tastes sweet. Suppose a foreign person visiting India has never tasted a mango. He has also been advised by his countrymen that bright-...
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What is the Ekayana sect criticized by Pillai Lokacharya's father?

By far the most famous commentary on Nammalwar's Thiruvaimozhi is the Eedu, aka the 36000 Padi, which was composed by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Vadakku Thiruveedhi Pillai, father of Pillai Lokacharya. ...
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285 views

Why did Mandana Mishra defend the Sphotavada theory of language?

Mandana Mishra was a Purva Mimamsa philosopher who became an Advaitin after losing a debate to the Advaita philosopher Adi Shankaracharya. He's often identified with Sureshwaracharya, although that's ...
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261 views

How do different Vedantic philosophies prove the existence of the soul?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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585 views

What is the story of Kubera being cursed to turn into an elephant?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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118 views

Where do the Vedas discuss Yagnas only bearing fruit in the afterlife?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
5
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135 views

Where is the Sama Veda quote referenced in the Brahma Sutras?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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422 views

How does Purva Mimamsa explain mentions of human beings in the eternal Vedas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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633 views

What kings passed on the Panchagni Vidya of the Upanishads?

As I discuss in the this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage ...
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Why do Vadakalai Sri Vaishnavas believe that Advaita liberation is not eternal?

Members of the Sri Vaishnava sect of Hinduism, especially the Iyengars (Sri Vaishnavas who are Brahmanas), are divided into two sub-sects, Thenkalais and Vadakalais. These two sub-sects both agree on ...
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52 views

Influence of Samkhya on other darshanas

Can I say Sankhya as the oldest hindu philosophy has influenced all the other darshanas like Vedanta? That implies all astika darshanas are derivative from Sankhya, not necessarily conflicting or ...
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77 views

According to advaitins, which brahma sutra says that the world is mithya?

Advaitins believe that the world is mithya. There are advaita commentaries on the brahmasutras, most notably by Shankara himself. So according to advaitins, which brahmasutra or sutras say that the ...
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Where can I get the works of Jayatirtha and Vyasatirtha in English translation?

Jayatirtha and Vyasatirtha, two extremely brilliant philosophers of Vedanta, have been characterized by countless scholars both from the East and West as presenting "the highest dialectical skill in ...
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53 views

Does nyaya or vaisheshikha school accept pratibhashik and paramarthik realities?

In one of the discourse I heard that Nyaya and Vaisheshikha accept 2 levels of reality. However Shankaracharya was the 1st one to refute this claim of 2 level realities and established the 3rd ...
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109 views

Where do the Brahma Sutras say number is not a quality?

The Vedanta Karikavali is a work by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Buchchi Venkatacharya summarizing the tenets of Visistadvaita. In particular, Visistadvaita says that there are two kinds of inanimate ...
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172 views

Is the feeling of “Deja Vu”, a glimpse of self realization?

As per below post, a philosophy called "Eternal Return" states that all events are repeating infinitely & hence predetermined. Does "Free Will" really exist, even if universe repeats ...