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Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

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33 votes
9 answers
7k views

Does Science contradict Hinduism? How to deal with scientific discoveries that don't line up with Vedas?

I would like to know if Hinduism and science contradict each other. This is an issue that arises in many religions, the most prominent example being Christianity and its disagreement with evolution. ...
Akshay's user avatar
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28 votes
3 answers
4k views

What percentage of Hindus belong to a sect that subscribes to the Vedanta school?

Indian schools of philosophy are traditionally divided into two categories, Astika and Nastika. Astika schools accept the authority of the Vedas as divinely revealed truth (shruti), whereas Nastika ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
27 votes
5 answers
5k views

Why does God allow us to suffer?

If God is a force of good then why is there so much suffering in this world? I thought I had understood the answer to this question after watching this video. Basically it says that if we ...
Aditya K's user avatar
  • 1,269
26 votes
8 answers
15k views

Did ancient Yogis float in the air and what is the method to do it?

"In Ancient India Yogis used to float in the Air" I am not sure about this statement but I heard people who have more concentration (possibly through Yoga) floated wherever they wanted. My ...
CR241's user avatar
  • 3,117
25 votes
3 answers
57k views

What is the difference between Thenkalai and Vadakalai sects of Sri Vaishnavism?

For those who do not know, there are two main sects of Sri Vaishnavism: Thenkalai and Vadakalai. The Vadakalai sect wear their namam, or thiruman, in a "U" shaped pattern with manjal or yellow like ...
Akshay's user avatar
  • 1,880
24 votes
2 answers
11k views

Dvaita vs Advaita vs Vishistadvaita vs Shuddhadvaita vs any other

I hear these terms Dvaita, Advaita, Vishistadvaita, Shuddhadvaita, and may be any other XYZdvaita, etc in most of the questions but I am not very sure what do they refer to. Are these some communities ...
Aby's user avatar
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23 votes
1 answer
7k views

Is there any scripture that tells story about Lord Vishnu and MahaVishnu?

As per the Shiva Purana, there is a main God Shiva who is Nirakara and thereafter his physical manifestation who is known as Shankara. I know that different Hindu texts about different Gods treat ...
Aby's user avatar
  • 10.1k
22 votes
4 answers
746 views

Why isn't there one Absolute Reality?

This is just to elicit opinion/discussion. There is no ''answer" to it really. You can choose to close it. But it is something that I always wondered about. In the annals of Sanaatana Dharma why isn'...
Kishore's user avatar
  • 237
22 votes
4 answers
5k views

Why is Sankaracharya accused as Pracchana Bauddha (crypto-buddhist) by many Vedantins?

Let us see some of the accusations of vedantins SANKARA’S ACCUSERS Bhaskara (9th Century CE), the propounder of bhedabheda-siddhanta was one of the earliest Indian philosophers to attack Mayavada. ...
Rakesh Joshi's user avatar
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21 votes
5 answers
4k views

Do some people have more Grace of God and some have less?

There are millions of people in the world, some are more successful and reach their goals while some try hard to reach their goals or their favorable profession, but fail to; or some people are more ...
Karmanya Nanda's user avatar
21 votes
1 answer
2k views

Do any commentators of Brahmasūtras other than Ādi Śaṅkarācārya disagree with both Pañcarātra and Śaiva Āgamas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedānta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sūtras, a work by the sage Vyāsa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
20 votes
5 answers
5k views

'Playing football takes us nearer to heaven rather than reading Bhagavad Gita' but how and why?

That famous line above was uttered by none other than Swami Vivekananda. I admit that I haven't gone through the complete speech yet, but I am curious to know what he meant by that. Did he mean that ...
Arnav Das's user avatar
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19 votes
9 answers
20k views

What is the difference between Buddhi (बुद्धि) and Mann (मन)?

I know Buddhi (बुद्धि) means intelligence/intellect and Mann (मन) means mind. But what is difference between them?
user5155835's user avatar
  • 2,883
19 votes
2 answers
1k views

What is the philosophical comparison between non-dualism of Vedanta and Agama?

Vedanta holds an important place in the philosophies of Hinduism. However, some of the lesser known philosophies of Agama too subscribe to non-dualism or advaitavAda. If so what are the main ...
Rakesh Joshi's user avatar
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18 votes
1 answer
1k views

What are all doctrines or philosophies discussed in Brahma Sutra?

Brahma Sutras (also known as Vedanta Sutras) have very profound significance in Vedanta Darshan. They systematize and summarize the spiritual and philosophical teaching of Upanishads. It is considered ...
Pandya's user avatar
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18 votes
2 answers
1k views

What is the earliest Hindu work refuting Mleccha religions or philosophies?

There are two kinds of schools of Indian philosophy, Astika and Nastika. Astikas accept the authority of the Vedas, whereas Nastikas reject the authority of the Vedas. The Astika schools are part of ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
17 votes
4 answers
7k views

According to ShankarAchArya in Advaita, is the universe "unreal" or "unworthy"?

Recently I came across one of the key quote, which sums up Adi ShankarAchArya's Advaita philosophy: The Brahman of the Upanishads is the only Reality, and everything else—this world of manifoldness—...
iammilind's user avatar
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17 votes
3 answers
3k views

Why do enlightened people contradict each other?

Why do enlightened people contradict each other? For example, Adi Shankara was enlightened and he taught Advaita Vedanta, while Mahavira (founder Of Jainism) was also enlightened and he taught and ...
Dark Knight's user avatar
  • 5,331
17 votes
3 answers
10k views

What is the ultimate goal of Hinduism?

I have observed that many Hindus today put a strong focus on liturgy (rituals, cracking coconuts, offering flowers, lighting diyas etc) and narratives (Hindu mythological stories,Puranas, Ramayana,...
Aditya K's user avatar
  • 1,269
17 votes
1 answer
7k views

Difference between Smartas and Advaitins?

What is the difference between a Smarta and an Advaitin? Both are the followers of Adi Sankaracharya only. People who worship Lord Shiva are called Shaivite and those who worship Lord Vishnu are ...
user12458's user avatar
  • 4,357
16 votes
3 answers
527 views

Is Atma the same as the body?

What logical arguments do our scriptures advance to show that Atma is not something material like the body? How do the six astika schools of Hindu Philosophy(Mimamsa, Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika ...
DirghaChintayanti's user avatar
16 votes
2 answers
3k views

Does "Free Will" really exist, even if universe repeats itself in perfect pattern?

The concept of universe repeating itself is similar to philosophy of Eternal Return. Such philosophy is subscribed many ancient Indian philosophers as well. In brief: A finitely timed universe ...
iammilind's user avatar
  • 19.8k
15 votes
6 answers
9k views

Do the Trimurti (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva) cleanly map onto the 3 gunas (sattva, rajas, tamas)?

I've read Shiva referred to as "tamasic", and Brahma seems to be a suitable embodiment of sattva. However, rajas doesn't fit very well here. I'm not sure how to match the energy/activity aspects of ...
tobek's user avatar
  • 253
15 votes
5 answers
495 views

Vedas and their philosophy

As per my reading from Wikipedia, the mukhya Upanishads discuss the philosophy of vedas. The seeds of advaita and vishishtadvaita philosophies are found in these upanishads as per my limited readings. ...
Xbert's user avatar
  • 321
15 votes
1 answer
1k views

Moksha for the Soul of Brahma

The life of Brahma is 100 years of Brahma. More information on Hindu Cosmology We are in 51st year of the current Brahma's Life Year. I also know that after Brahma dies, Brahma (the soul in that ...
Bhavin's user avatar
  • 4,915
15 votes
3 answers
1k views

What is the means of attaining Moksha according to the different Astika schools?

There are two kinds of schools of Indian philosophy, Astika and Nastika. Astikas accept the authority of the Vedas, whereas Nastikas reject the authority of the Vedas. The Astika schools are part ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
15 votes
1 answer
6k views

What is Shakti Visishtadvaita philosophy?

Does any one know what this(Shakti Visishtadvaita) philosophy is all about? I know what are dvaita, advaita philosophies but this is new one.
Manju's user avatar
  • 265
15 votes
1 answer
1k views

How does the soul returns in the dead body when a dead person is revived using Amrita?

There are many references in our scriptures when deads are revived to life using Amrita and Mrita Sanjeevani Vidya.. A common accepted vedic doctrine is that soul (along with manomaya, vijnamaya and ...
Tezz's user avatar
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15 votes
2 answers
1k views

When were Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism marked as separate religions?

Historically, Buddhism and Jainism were just some of the many sects or philosophical schools in ancient times. When was the separation of religions happened and when were all vedic and non-vedic sects ...
gaj's user avatar
  • 1,893
15 votes
1 answer
531 views

What are the various forms of Vishnu according to Pancharatra?

Recently while reading Prasthana Bheda of Madhusudan Sarasvati, I found he mentioned four forms of Vishnu according to Pancharatra: Quoting from sanskritdocuments.org: एवं वैष्णवं नारदादिभिः कृतं ...
Pandya's user avatar
  • 26.2k
14 votes
4 answers
4k views

What are Vivartavada and Ajatavada?

In some text relating to advaita I've found two Vada(वाद) i.e doctrine/thesis: Vivartavada (विवर्तवाद) Ajatavada (अजातवाद) I also found some mention Advaita Vedanta as Vivartavada. So, I want to ...
Pandya's user avatar
  • 26.2k
14 votes
2 answers
23k views

What is the source of this (Kayena vacha...) text? or Where does it come from?

I am talking about the following shloka (posting it in Sanskrit and English): कायेन वाचा मनसेन्द्रियैर्वा बुद्ध्यात्मना वा प्रकृतेः स्वभावात् । करोमि यद्यद् सकलं परस्मै नारायणायेति समर्पयामि ॥...
Pandya's user avatar
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14 votes
1 answer
1k views

What are the Kashmir Agamas defended in Yamunacharya's lost work?

As I discuss in this answer, one of the early movements that was important to the development of Vaishnavism was the ancient Pancharatra movement, whose sacred texts or Agamas consisted of detailed ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
14 votes
1 answer
3k views

Who is a Shaivite or Shaiva? What are his/her supposed qualities?

Like in this thread we find the definition & qualities of a Vaishnava, I would like to know the same for the Shaiva as well. What is the definition or qualities of a Shaiva or Shaivite.
ㅤㅤㅤㅤㅤ's user avatar
14 votes
1 answer
2k views

Where is this Srimad Bhagavatam verse about the different forms of Moksha?

According to Vaishnavism, there are six kinds of liberation from Samsara (the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth). They're each defined in relation to Vishnu, since Vaishnavas consider Vishnu to be ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
14 votes
0 answers
345 views

What are the different Vaishnava interpretations on the nature of Lord Vishnu's physical form?

I understand that Lord Vishnu's body is aprakrita, composed of sat-chit-ananda, but is it understood to have a physical reality? i.e. four arms, two legs, one head, two eyes, five fingered hands, ie, ...
Valarauko's user avatar
  • 1,303
13 votes
6 answers
1k views

Have any Hindu philosophers attempted to solve the Riddle of Epicurus?

The Epicurean Paradox or the Riddle of Epicurus goes something like this: If God is willing to prevent evil but not able, then He is not omnipotent. If He is able (to prevent evil) but not ...
Say No To Censorship's user avatar
13 votes
6 answers
999 views

What is the core message of the Bhagavad-gītā? What are some verses from Bhagavad-gītā that one can refer to, to enrich life in general?

What is (or what are) the core message(s) of the Bhagavad-gītā? What are some verses from Bhagavad-gītā, that one can refer to, to enrich life in general? This question is inspired by Core messages ...
Say No To Censorship's user avatar
13 votes
4 answers
7k views

Can a person change his caste in Hinduism?

Each person born as a Hindu has some caste attached to him. As per my understanding he remains in the same caste throughout his life. Currently, I don't think anybody can change his/her caste, but was ...
demonofthemist's user avatar
13 votes
4 answers
939 views

Any mantras that are not of Sanskrit origin?

Are there any spells (mantras) in Hinduism which are not in Sanskrit, but in other languages. I came across a mantra in Awadhi dialect of Hindi, it's something about blessings for studying and was ...
Mohak Sahu's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
5k views

What is the reason behind lokas in Hinduism?

In the Puranas, and already in the Atharvaveda, there are fourteen worlds, seven higher ones (vyahrtis) and seven lower ones (patalas), viz. bhu, bhuvas, svar, mahas, janas, tapas, and satya above and ...
Avis's user avatar
  • 1,567
13 votes
1 answer
659 views

What is Ramanujacharya's argument that the Upanishads must be true if they grant Moksha?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
13 votes
0 answers
652 views

What is the difference between Raudra and Saumya sects of Shaivism?

The term "Shaivite" is often overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they are actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
4k views

K.S. Bhagavan's critique of Adi Shankara

An Indian writer named K.S. Bhagavan published in 1982 a book entitled Shankaracharya and Reactionary Philosophy = ಶಂಕರಾಚಾರ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರತಿಗಾಮಿತನ. I heard that Bhagavan criticized Adi Shankara in ...
Jo Wehler's user avatar
  • 1,668
12 votes
3 answers
2k views

Which Upanishads are quoted in sage Vyasa's Brahma Sutras?

As I discuss in this answer, each of the four Vedas consists of four portions: Samhitas, the core part of the Vedas which consist of verses heard from the gods; Brahmanas, which provide instructions ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
12 votes
2 answers
7k views

Is the length of a man's life predetermined?

Has the length of a man's life already been determined in advance, even before a person is born? To answer this question, please be sure to furnish quotations from the scriptures and explain how you ...
brahma jijnasa's user avatar
12 votes
2 answers
8k views

Was Ubhaya Bharati right in asking a question related to Kama Sutra?

I would like to split question into two parts: 1) Ubhaya Bharati was appointed the judge between Adi Shankaracharya and Mandana Mishra. After Mandana accepts defeat from Shankaracharya, why was ...
abhishek's user avatar
  • 907
12 votes
2 answers
4k views

Why are there different classes of पुराणs (Puranas)?

The Padma Purana mentions that the eighteen Puranas are divided into three groups of six: Sattvika, Rajasika, and Tamasika. Why do the Rajasika and Tamasika Puranas exist at all? Does the Padma Purana ...
AdityaS's user avatar
  • 905
12 votes
1 answer
3k views

Origin of the Law of Karma

The Law of Karma can be said to be the cornerstone of Hindu philosophies. Where in Hindu scriptures do we find the first mention of the Law of Karma? Does it have mention in Vedas?
gaj's user avatar
  • 1,893
12 votes
4 answers
466 views

What is Advaita?

(Using the "body" and "hand" instead of "Brahman" and "Atman") Ramanuja says, "the hand is the same as the body but the hand is not the body itself". Madhu says, "the hand is not the body and the ...
Tamela's user avatar
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