Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

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10
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1answer
214 views

Has Hinduism ever tried to enfold Christianity (or other semitic religions)?

I am currently reading Swami Prabhavananda The Spiritual Heritage of India (1962) and find it very clear and informative (better than e.g. Heinrich Zimmer's Philosophies of India so far). Early on it ...
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1answer
503 views

Reference request for Swami Vivekananda's quote on life coming from the moon

Swami Vivekananda makes a passing remark in one of his lectures (Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, V2 p90) of the following: By the by, it may interest some of you to know that there are ...
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5answers
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I want scripture-based explanation for “God is Everywhere”

Most dominant philosophy in Hinduism is that God is everywhere and in everything. I want to understand this in more detail. As per science we know that around us there are two distinct things: Space-...
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Debate between Maṇḍana Miśra and Ādi Śankara

I have read that there was a debate between Maṇḍana Miśra, an exponent of Mīmāmsā, and Ādi Śankara, an exponent of Advaita, in which Maṇḍana Miśra's wife was the judge. Ādi Śankara won the debate and ...
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4answers
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Are there Hindu scriptural references for “Simulation hypothesis” or the “theory of simulation”?

Simulation hypothesis is a theory which is available in both philosophy as well as science. There is a long philosophical and scientific history to the underlying thesis that reality is an illusion....
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3answers
204 views

Is it possible for us to see the subtle body?

Majority of you might know the three bodies doctrine in Indian philosophies, i.e., Gross body, subtle body and casual body. We can see gross body with our two eyes. But is it possible to see subtle ...
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546 views

The concept of God in Bhakti Yoga

From three classical yogas in Hinduism viz. Karma, Bhakti and Jnana, I found me Ajnani in case of Bhakti yoga probably due to improper concept of god. I understand the Karma Yoga: Nishkam Karma or ...
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Why are there different classes of पुराणs (Puranas)?

The Padma Purana mentions that the eighteen Puranas are divided into three groups of six: Sattvika, Rajasika, and Tamasika. Why do the Rajasika and Tamasika Puranas exist at all? Does the Padma Purana ...
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What are Vivartavada and Ajatavada?

In some text relating to advaita I've found two Vada(वाद) i.e doctrine/thesis: Vivartavada (विवर्तवाद) Ajatavada (अजातवाद) I also found some mention Advaita Vedanta as Vivartavada. So, I want to ...
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593 views

Are there any surviving quotes from Baudhayana's commentary on the Brahma Sutras?

The most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by Vyasa which summarizes the philosophical teachings ...
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1answer
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Origin of the Law of Karma

The Law of Karma can be said to be the cornerstone of Hindu philosophies. Where in Hindu scriptures do we find the first mention of the Law of Karma? Does it have mention in Vedas?
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1answer
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What is Anumana Pramana to be precise?

What exactly is Anumana Pramana? Guessing the past happenings with the available evidence also come under Anumana Pramana? And how does it differ from Artapatti Pramana?
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268 views

How is the all pervading God said to reside in the Daharakasha?

It is understood that the space within the heart, which is the corresponding microscopic form of the macroscopic form of Space, is known in metaphysical terms as Daharakasha(tiniest cosmos). The all ...
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2answers
239 views

Why pain and suffering? [duplicate]

We see a lot of conflicts, accidents, diseases, poverty, pain and suffering around us in our day to day life. I often wonder why god created so much misery and so little goodness. What is His plan ...
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1answer
275 views

Pramanas: Prathyaksha vs. Shabda

Some of the sources of Pramana in Vedantic philosophy are Shabda (scriptures), Pratyaksha (direct perception) and Anumana (inference). In Vedantic philosophy, Shabda occupies the highest source of ...
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208 views

Where does the Advaitin commentator Anandagiri discuss the authenticity of Hindu stories?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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329 views

What is Ramanujacharya's argument that the Upanishads must be true if they grant Moksha?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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730 views

Where is this Srimad Bhagavatam verse about the different forms of Moksha?

According to Vaishnavism, there are six kinds of liberation from Samsara (the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth). They're each defined in relation to Vishnu, since Vaishnavas consider Vishnu to be ...
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620 views

What is the Nyaya argument for Karma being the instrumental cause of the Universe?

The Agama Pramanya is a work by the famous Sri Vaishnava Acharya Yamunacharya arguing that the Pancharatra texts, which are foundational to mainstream Vaishnavism as I discuss here, are legitimate ...
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BG 4.40 - What does Kṛṣṇa mean by saṁśayātmā (doubting mind)?

Bhagavad-gītā 4.40 says: अज्ञश्चाश्रद्दधानश्च संशयात्मा विनश्यति। नायं लोकोऽस्ति न परो न सुखं संशयात्मनः।।4.40।। ajñaścāśraddadhānaśca saṅśayātmā vinaśyati. nāyaṅ lōkō.sti na parō na ...
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7answers
643 views

Have any Hindu philosophers attempted to solve the Riddle of Epicurus?

The Epicurean Paradox or the Riddle of Epicurus goes something like this: If God is willing to prevent evil but not able, then He is not omnipotent. If He is able (to prevent evil) but not ...
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786 views

Does Shiva or Vishnu or Trikaladarshi Yogi know our Aagami Karma or our free will?

Aagami Karma is actions we do in this birth. This is generally said to be free will. See this question: Is our destiny predetermined? If yes, then why do our actions affect our karma?. Does Shiva or ...
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Is it possible for one to have animal birth after human birth?

If a person i.e., a human form dies, then is it possible for him to have his next birth as an animal per his pāpa or puṇya? The reason I'm asking this question is, I came across the theory below. If ...
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What's the meaning & relevance of LIC logo “yogakshemam vahamyaham”? [closed]

What's the philosophy of "yogakshemam vahamyaham" & how is it relevant to LIC (Life Insurance Corporation of India)? अनन्याश्चिन्तयन्तो मां ये जना: पर्युपासते | तेषां नित्याभियुक्तानां यो...
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2answers
509 views

What scriptures describe swans separating milk from water?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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Is the Sankhya Darshana/Philosophy prior to Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads?

We know that there are Six Aastika Philosophy (Shad Darshana) : Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshiki,Mimamsa and Vedanta based on Vedas. In many verses of Bhagavad Gita, the word Sankhya is found ; ...
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690 views

Why does the Jiva reside in Brahman during deep sleep?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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3answers
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What are the views of Vishishtadvaita on Nirguna Brahman?

According to Advaita, Para Brahman (परब्रह्म) is Nirguna Brahman (निर्गुण ब्रह्म)[1] [2] but I've found that Vishishtadvaitis don't believe in Nirguna Brahman. So, let me ask: What are the views of ...
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543 views

What are the main arguments in favor of the Ātman view over the Anātman view?

The main difference (I know) between Hinduism and Buddhism is that the first defends Ātman theory whereas the second defends Anātman theory. Shankara is known for having debated (and won) with ...
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Did Swami Vivekananda, Paramhamsa Yogananda, & Osho Rajneesh really attain Moksha according to Vedic scriptures? [duplicate]

Below slokas from the Gita are actually a bit mystical in nature: BG 8.23-8.26 — O best of the Bhāratas, I shall now explain to you the different times at which, passing away from this world, ...
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262 views

What is the position of different Vaishnavite sects regarding the Advaitic definition of Nirguna Brahman?

As I understand it, to them the absolute is a person - Vishnu/Narayana, Rama and Krishna being the most prominent. What is their stand on the Nirguna Brahman of Advaitists? I am not interested in ...
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3answers
767 views

What is Fullness and Emptyness (void) according to the Vedas?

I was reading a post containing the following lines taken from Veda, where I could not understand. That is Fullness, this is Fullness; from Fullness comes Fullness. When Fullness is taken from ...
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791 views

How do Dvaitins interpret this verse of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad?

The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is a part of the Shukla Yajur Veda. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad contains this verse (1.4.10): ब्रह्म वा इदमग्र आसीत्, तदात्मानमेवावेत् ‘अहं ब्रह्मास्मि’ इति । तस्मात् ...
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1answer
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Whose commentaries on the Vedas and Upanishads are most followed?

There are many people who write commentaries on the Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita etc. Whose commentaries is most followed. Also where can I get all of those Upanishads and Vedas in English? ...
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Are Pramanas mentioned in the Vedas?

There are 10 Pramanas. Among those, majority of orthodox schools of Hinduism accept at least 3 Pramanas VIZ; Pratyaksha, Anumana and Sabda. Now, do these Pramanas mentioned in the Vedas(Both Karma and ...
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776 views

How did Advaitins Defend Attributeless brahman from Ramanuja's arguments?

As per Advaita Vedanta of Adi Shankara, The Supreme reality i.e. Brahman is without any attributes. Advaita philosophy says that we perceive the world only owing to maya(ignorance).i.e. This world ...
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1answer
391 views

How do the different Hindu sects complete the line “Sri Bhagavat Agna”?

Before you do any Hindu ritual, you're supposed to begin by saying the Sankalpam, a formulaic utterance in which you tell the gods where you're located in the universe, the time and date when you're ...
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127 views

Are there exams after studying the Vedas? Does the Guru make sure the student can properly pronounce the Vedas?

Is there any way the Guru makes sure a student can properly pronounce the Vedas, has committed it to memory, and understands the concepts? Today, you will get a diploma from an accredited university, ...
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626 views

What is the difference between Veerashaivism and Lingayatism?

Lingayats and Veerashaivites are often considered the same Shaivite sect. However, there are many who consider them distinct to each other. What is the difference between the two?
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Vaisheshik does not consider Shabda as pramana, then how they hold veda as valid and reliable source for knowledge

1) Vaiśeṣika epistemology considered only "pratyakṣa" (perception) and "anumāna" (inference) as reliable means of valid knowledge reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaisheshika#Epistemology ...
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Is religion different from science ? Especially when it comes to falsifiability of claims?

Scientists claim that the underlying notion of a science is falsifiability i.e. the ability to disprove a statement via performing an experiment. Rishis claim that the underlying notion of religion ...
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What does Madhvacharya mean by the Jiva “half-entering” Brahman during fainting?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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268 views

How does Ramanujacharya interpret a quote from Upavarsha's ancient Vritti?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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447 views

What is the difference between Raudra and Saumya sects of Shaivism?

The term "Shaivite" is often overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they are actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and ...
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How is betting against one's wife and selling one's life partner justifed in Hinduism?

How is it justified that Harishchandra sold his wife, or that Pandu's sons bet against Draupadi in the Mahabharata? FYI - They were never charged (at least I don't find any reference) for this - for ...
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495 views

Is there a Darshana/Philosophy based on Agamas?

We know that Hindu philosophy refers to Shad Darshana viz. Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimansa and Vedanta. These Darshan/philosophies are based on various Darshan Sutras witten by Rishis. The ...
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5answers
767 views

Is every Jeeva “eternal” like the ultimate God (nirguna Brahman) or “temporary” within cycle?

"Temporary" vs "Eternal": "Temporary" (may be sat-asat) means, something which keeps changing. It survives by repetition. "Eternal" (may be param akshara) means, with respect to which all these ...
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2answers
406 views

Why does Sankhya consider Prakriti as the root cause?

Are there any arguments provided by Sankhya school to hold Prakriti (Mula Prakriti or Pradhana), and not other things like atoms or consciousness, as the root cause of the universe? Maybe somewhere in ...
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1answer
174 views

Why is Yoga called union when it is the mind that actually dissolves?

It is said that Mind is simply a bundle of thoughts and the patanajali yoga sutras says "yogachittavritiinirodha". Since the thought process is restrained through meditation and ego is dissolved,veil ...
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Shadripu in Hindu texts

What is the source of the concept of Shadripu (six enemies) in Hindu philosophy, i.e., which Hindu religious text first described the Shadripu (षड्रिपु)? From Wikipedia : Shadripu (Sanskrit: षड्रि...