Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
7
votes
1answer
350 views

What is Prashtantrayi?

I have heard this name many times related to Adi Shankaracharya. He has given many lectures about Prasthantrayi. Is this any Upanishad, Purana or else? I just want to know some brief detail about ...
7
votes
2answers
334 views

What is the actual definition of Vedanta?

There are many versions of Vedanta available and most of them have drastic differences and contradictions. So is Vedanta is a loosely coined term or does it have a concrete definition? What is its ...
7
votes
1answer
277 views

How does Vishishtadvaita interpret “One without a second”?

There are some Advaita sounding verses in the Upanishads which declare that there is only one without a second in the beginning: Aitareya Upanishad 1.1.1: ॐ आत्मा वा इदमेक एवाग्र आसीन्नान्यत्किंचन ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Whose commentaries on the Vedas and Upanishads are most followed?

There are many people who write commentaries on the Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita etc. Whose commentaries is most followed. Also where can I get all of those Upanishads and Vedas in English? ...
7
votes
1answer
822 views

Who developed the terminology of the Prasthanatrayi of the Vedanta school?

The most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. Vedanta derives its teachings from three sources or authorities, known as the Prasthanatrayi or three starting points: The ...
7
votes
5answers
1k views

How can the ideology of Cārvāka exist within Hinduism?

Cārvāka (or charvak), which is a sub-ideology within Hinduism, contains highly conflicting ideals with the core religious views. For example, it's dominantly atheistic (and that sort of defeats the ...
7
votes
1answer
632 views

What is Shaktipata?

Can anyone explain about it with good examples? What are the different types of Shaktipata?
7
votes
2answers
127 views

What is positive thinking? How is it developed?

Many philosophers, Gurus and Acharyas stress on "positive way of life" or "positive thinking". If the "negative thinking" was so bad, then it would have vanished from general populace with time, isn't ...
7
votes
1answer
264 views

Is Dramidacharya the same as Thirumazhisai Alwar?

The Alwars (also spelled Azhwars) are a group of 12 ancient Vaishnava saints who lived in Tamil Nadu and are famous for their devotional poetry in praise of Vishnu. The collection of their 4000 poems, ...
7
votes
1answer
604 views

More information about the idea of Asvattha, the tree of transmigration found in Chapter 15 of Bhagavad Gita

Almost a decade ago I saw the movie the Matrix. I had to see it twice to understand the full idea. It seemed like a new idea at the time: that the world we live in is just an imaginary world; in the ...
7
votes
4answers
526 views

Why does the word “Atma” in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad refer to the mind rather than the actual Atma?

In Adhyaya 3 Brahmana 9 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the sage Yagnavalkya tells Vidagdha Sakalya what the eleven Rudras are associated with: katame rudrā iti । daśeme puruṣe prāṇā ...
7
votes
1answer
862 views

Which Āstika schools mention the different types of Muktis?

Which Āstika schools mention these different types of muktis: Sārūpya, Sālokya, Sārṣṭi, Sāmīpya, Sāyujya, Viśate, Kaivalya, Moksha Are there more types of muktis in āstika schools? Which types of ...
7
votes
1answer
112 views

Vaisheshik does not consider Shabda as pramana, then how they hold veda as valid and reliable source for knowledge

1) Vaiśeṣika epistemology considered only "pratyakṣa" (perception) and "anumāna" (inference) as reliable means of valid knowledge reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaisheshika#Epistemology ...
7
votes
1answer
329 views

What is Sapta Vidha Anupapatti? who has written that work?

Sapta Vidha Anupapatti, also called Seven Untenables is said to be an objection raised against the concept of Avidya of Advaita Vedanta. I've some questions regarding it: What is Sapta Vidha ...
7
votes
0answers
289 views

How would dualistic schools of Vedanta (Vishistadvaitha and Dvaita) debate with a Buddhist?

As far as I know, Vishishtadvaitha and Dvaita base their arguments on Vedas. As Buddhists reject the Vedas, how would the dualistic schools of Vedanta debate with Buddhists and establish Veda ...
7
votes
0answers
87 views

Which Sri Vaishnava works discuss Parashara’s Sharanagati for all Jivas?

The Sri Vaishnava sect has two sub-sects, Thenkalai and Vadakalai. Vadakalais follow the teachings of Vedanta Desikan, whereas Thenkalais follow the teachings of Pillai Lokacharya. My question is ...
7
votes
0answers
83 views

How does Vedanta Desikan interpret Ramanujacharya’s statement about Brihaspati’s brother Samvarta?

The Satadhusani is a work by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Vedanta Desikan consisting of 100 refutations of Adi Shankaracharya's philosophy of Advaita. One chapter of the work is devoted to refuting the ...
7
votes
0answers
149 views

What were the salient features of Ekayana Vaishnavism (Kashmiri Vaishnavism)?

Kashmir was once a hub of Sanskrit and Indian philosophies or traditions like Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Buddhism etc. In ancient times, a tradition called Kashmiri Vaishnavism also flourished which was ...
7
votes
0answers
292 views

Shunya (nothingness) vs Purna (fullness) — How to reconcile the seemingly contradictive statements in Uttara Gita?

In the Uttara Gita Chapter 1, Sloka 35 describes the Atma as ऊर्ध्वशून्यमधःशून्यं मध्यशून्यं यदात्मकम् । सर्वशून्यं स आत्मेति समाधिस्थस्य लक्षणम् ॥ When (one perceives) the Atma is ...
7
votes
0answers
129 views

Why did the Vaisheshika school believe 100 quadrillion is the largest number?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
7
votes
0answers
168 views

Is Adi Shankaracharya's commentary on the Adhyatma Patala available online in English?

It is well-known that Adi Shankaracharya wrote commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishada, the Brahma Sutras, and the Vishnu Sahasranamam. But there's one commentary that's not as well known. ...
7
votes
0answers
453 views

What Mleccha languages are used in the Vedas according to Purva Mimamsa?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
7
votes
0answers
135 views

Who are the Visaraga Yogis condemned by the Vaikhanasas?

As I discuss in this answer, one of the early movements that was important to the development of Vaishnavism was the ancient Pancharatra movement, whose sacred texts consisted of detailed procedures ...
7
votes
0answers
300 views

Has anyone responded to Ramanujacharya's refutation of the Cosmological Argument for the existence of God?

In Western philosophy, one of the most common arguments for the existence of God is the cosmological argument, which states roughly that everything has a cause, and so the Universe must have a cause, ...
7
votes
0answers
439 views

What is the difference between Raudra and Saumya sects of Shaivism?

The term "Shaivite" is often overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they are actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and ...
7
votes
0answers
303 views

Do any commentaries on the Brahma Sutras say that animal sacrifice is immoral?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
7
votes
0answers
376 views

How do Dvaitins interpret the Advaita-sounding prayer of Prahlada?

In this chapter of the Vishnu Purana, Prahlada is thrown off a cliff and into the sea by Hiranyakashipu's men. Unfazed by this, he prays to Vishnu: I glorify the supreme deity Vishńu, the ...
7
votes
1answer
229 views

Oneness of different Indian philosophical thoughts [closed]

Do six schools of Indian Philosophy accommodate each other or are they watertight compartments each to the exclusion of other?
6
votes
3answers
2k views

What is called Adhibhuta (Matter)?

In Bhagavad Gita Chapter 8 Verse 1: Arjuna asked it to Krishna that What called Adibhuta(Matter)? किं तद्ब्रह्म किमध्यात्मं किं कर्म पुरुषोत्तम | अधिभूतं च किं प्रोक्तमधिदैवं किमुच्यते || 1|| ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Was the Purva mimansa an atheist school?

Why purva mimansa school did not believe in existence of vedic gods but were strict believers of Vedas?
6
votes
2answers
261 views

Should Prajapati (Lord Brahma) be regarded as a Supreme Self or a Transmigrating Jiva?

In the Shruti sources we find many statements that Lord Prajapati is Supreme Self. For example Shatapatha Brahmana of YajurVeda in 6.1.3.1 states Verily, Prajâpati alone was here in the beginning. ...
6
votes
2answers
384 views

Are there video materials of Vedic scriptures describing states of consciousness?

I would like to know if there are video materials of explained Vedic texts (knowledge) on the internet? Specifically the knowledge about states of consciousness.
6
votes
3answers
244 views

In Pratibimba Vada, which is the jivatman? The original or the reflected?

Here's an youtube video on the analogy of Two Birds, by Swami Sarvapriyananda (an advaitin monk). Two birds by Swami Sarvapriyananda Here, he compares the tree with our physical body, and the two ...
6
votes
1answer
285 views

What does other sects & acharyas believe in Bhagavad Gita 7.19 Sloka except Vasinava Acharayas or Sects?

Most of every acharyas accepted Bhagavad Gita is best medium to attain Moksha and gave their commentary on it. And Bhagavad Gita is also accepted as authenticate holy book in Most of every Vedanta ...
6
votes
1answer
376 views

What parts of Utpaladeva's Ishwara Pratyabhijna Vivriti are available in English?

Generally, Vaishnavas follow the Pancharatra Agamas, Shaivites follow the Shaiva Agamas, and Shaktas follow the Shaiva Agamas. But long ago, there was a group of people in Kashmir who followed the ...
6
votes
1answer
140 views

Who was the solar dynasty king who was turned into a spider?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
6
votes
2answers
550 views

lokavat tu lila kaivalyam [Brh. Su. - 2.1.33] - The creation is merely a sport of Brahman

lokavat tu lila kaivalyam [Brahma Sutras - 2.1.33] The creation is merely a sport of Brahman. So does it look like God created us for fun?
6
votes
1answer
330 views

Should one regard deities as Superior and Inferior as per Adi Shankara?

Adi Shankara is the upholder of Advaita (Non-dual) philosophy. There is popular belief among Advaitins that one shouldn't differentiate between Gods as they all are same. But is this thing ...
6
votes
1answer
346 views

How are logical fallacies identified in Hindu philosophical debates? Do they have specific names?

This article lists the 12 common fallacies committed by people in everyday discussions and also by philosophers in debates from time to time. Are similar logical fallacies found in Hindu debates? How ...
6
votes
1answer
85 views

Are there verses from scriptures which list 24 tattvas according to Sankhya Darshana?

As we have seen previously that Hinduism believes in the field-fielder (Kshetra–Kshetragna) theory. Prakruti is the field and Purusha is its fielder. Similarly, body is a field (kshetra) and the soul ...
6
votes
1answer
513 views

What does Brahma sutras say about Susupti state?

Susupti is a state of deep sleep in which there is no experience of dreams (Svapnanubhavah) What does Badarayana say about it in Brahma sutras and what is take of Advatin, Visiatadvaitins and ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Meaning of Citta?

The most prolific usage of the concept of 'Chittam' is in the Patanjali Yoga Sutras. The word is most identified with as part of 'Shat-Chit-Anandam' meaning existance-conciousness-bliss according to ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Vivekachudamani Of Adi Sankaracharya

I have the "Vivekachudamani" of Adi Sankaracharya in Sanskrit language with word-by-word meaning in Hindi but still I am finding very difficult to understand it. Is there any Online site (for Hard ...
6
votes
1answer
653 views

What does the Vivarana school of Advaita believe about the nature of Avidya?

It's well known that the Sri Vaishnava sect, which subscribes to the Visishtadvaita philosophy of Ramanujacharya, is divided into two sects, the Thenkalais and Vadakalais as I discuss here. Less well-...
6
votes
1answer
326 views

Why is charvaka system considered wrong?

In this question I asked about philosophies and in the answer Be-Happy writes following lines But the warning is valid because apart from the accepted philosophy and systems there are also systems ...
6
votes
1answer
960 views

Does Adi Shankaracharya equate Brahman with the causal body in his Brahma Sutra Bhashya?

As I discuss in this answer, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Is there a concept of soul mate in Hinduism?

I have come across many philosophies in Hinduism with regards to the soul or "atman". I was just curious if there is any concept of soul mate explained in Hinduism? Can anyone enlighten?
6
votes
1answer
235 views

Does any doctrine/philosophy believe that Jiva emerges from (and merges into) Brahman?

According to Advaita, ultimately there is no difference between Jiva and Brahman. The individuality of Jivas are perceived due to the ignorance. (Actually Jiva never originates according to Gaudapada ...
6
votes
1answer
181 views

Has any Advaita Acharya or scholar resolved/answered/refuted Sapta Vidha Anupapatti?

As, I've mentioned in previous question, Sapta Vidha Aupapatti, also called seven untenables are said to be an objection raised against the concept of Avidya of Advaita Vedanta. I want to know has ...
6
votes
1answer
326 views

Is there any no need of worshipping/ believing God for material benefits? & For liberation, is recommended but optional?

This answer explains the need of worshipping God. The answerer is talking about the impossibility of getting liberation without being a devotee. But Gautam Buddha & Mahavir proved the statement ...