Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

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169 views

Why do Advaitins strive to realize Brahman if only Brahman exists?

If, as Advaitins say, only Brahman ultimately exists then why do saints like Shankaracharyas and others strive to realise Brahman and for that live an austere life? After all, in Advaita Brahman ...
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104 views

How did the Purva Mimamsa school explain Gotras?

If the Purva Mimamsa school believes that the Earth and humans are eternal, then how does it explain ancestral Gotras, such descendants of Bharadwaj, Angirasa, etc?
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Aesthetics in Hinduism

Is there a branch of philosophy in Hinduism about aesthetics? By aesthetics I mean the western notions of the term as we currently understand to be one of the main branches of western philosophy. I do ...
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745 views

What is the relation between Viraj, Hiranyagarbha, Brahma, and Saguna Brahman in Advaita terminology?

In this chapter of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the sage Yagnavalkya tells his disciple king Janaka about the levels of bliss among beings in different Lokas: Now a hundred of these human ...
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1answer
2k views

What are Avidya, Maya and Ignorance according to Advaita?

According to Advaita, I want to get a clear understanding of the following terms: Avidya Maya Ignorance What are Avidya, Maya and Ignorance? And what is the difference/relationship between them? In ...
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What are the differences in teachings between Yoga Vasista, Ashtavakra Gita, and Vivekachudamani?

Yoga Vasistha (योग-वासिष्ठ), Ashtavakra Gita (अष्टावक्रगीता), and Vivekachudamani (विवेकचूडामणि) are teachings about Enlightenment and (Moh)Maya. What are the Philosophical differences between these ...
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Which scripture claims to be essence of all Aranyakas?

Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text parts – the Samhitas, the Aranyakas, the Brahmanas, and the Upanishads. Now, Essence of all Samhitas --> compiled as Devata Kanda Sutras ...
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What's that which make something insentient and other sentient? [duplicate]

Consciosness is ever present everywhere. There is no place where it is not! So on what basis something becomes insentient & other sentient according to Kashmiri Shaivism or Tantra?
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Did the Purva Mimamsa school think the Devas have no intelligence?

Udayana's Nyaya Kusumanjali is a Nyaya-Vaisheshika work which seeks to logically prove the existence of God. In this excerpt from the Nyaya Kusumanjali, Udayana describes how the Prana Pratishtha ...
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223 views

What is the story of the Pishacha who overheard the Bhagavad Gita?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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What is the Suryakanta gem that produces fire from sunlight?

I've come across multiple scriptures and works of Acharyas which describe a Suryakanta gem, which seems to act like a magnifying glass, using sunlight to produce fire. Here's what this chapter of the ...
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Did Vyasa and Baudhayana believe in 10 Pramanas and 8 Pramanas respectively?

The Manimekalai is a 6th century Tamil epic poem composed by the Buddhist poet Chithalai Chathanar. It talks about philosophy a lot, which given its early date means that it gives a rare glimpse into ...
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334 views

Which Shaiva Agamas does Appayya Dikshitar consider anti-Vedic?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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187 views

What scriptures describe toads being found in the heart of solid rocks?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
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243 views

Where do the Vedas say the cows of the gods walk on their backs?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
6
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403 views

Has Bhaskara's second-oldest Brahma Sutra Bhashya ever been translated into English?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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167 views

According to one thought “If you can't explain anything simply that means you don't understand it”

According to one thought "If you can't explain anything simply that means you don't understand it" Does that mean we human beings don't certainly know about god also? What's Hinduism's views on ...
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407 views

Why did Brihaspati establish Charvaka or materialistic philosophical Sect?

Brihaspati is DevaGuru, the spiritual Guru of the Gods. More so, He is the planet of Spirituality​. Brihaspati is the God of all knowledge and intellect. So Brihaspati could bring the philosophical or ...
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328 views

Why did Vedvyasa mention his shishya Jaimini's opinion/saying in Brahma Sutra?

I started reading the BrahmaSutra and have completed 1.2. I found Vedavyasa mentions Jaimini in his sutra: साक्षादप्यविरोधं जैमिनिः।।1.2.28।। Jaimini (declares that there is) no contradiction ...
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Does kalpa bheda explanation for reconciling different narrative in puranas have scriptural basis?

Some sects use kalpa bheda or manvantara bheda to explain contradictions in the events narrated differently in different puranas and when there exists no way to reconcile them. Does such explanation ...
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How many commentaries have there been of the Nyaya Sutras?

The Nyaya Sutras, composed by the Gautama, is one of the most important Indian philosophical texts and forms the basis of Nyaya school of thought. Now, how many commentaries are there of these Sutras?...
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What do the different Astika schools think the Universe is made of?

There are two kinds of schools of Indian philosophy, Astika and Nastika. Astikas accept the authority of the Vedas, whereas Nastikas reject the authority of the Vedas. The Astika schools are part of ...
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Who was the solar dynasty king who was turned into a spider?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
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Book recommendation for a thorough treatise on Rishi Gautama's Nyaya Shastra?

An English translation with original Sanskrit verses would be ideal. It should cover all aspects/teachings contained in the Nyaya philosophy.
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Is every being a God?

According to Kaivalya Upanishad: He(Supreme Brahman) alone is all that was, and all that will be, the Eternal. Knowing Him, one transcends death. There is no other way to freedom. We know ...
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227 views

Six Classical Schools in Hindu Philosophy

I have been reading about the six classical schools of Hindu philosophy (also known as the Shad-Darshan system). Did all of these schools exist simultaneously and debate with each other (thereby ...
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120 views

How do dvaitins interpret this verse from Bhagavad Gita?

In chapter 8.21, Krishna Paramatma says that eternal unmanifest abode as supreme abode of him and never mentions any separate place as his abode. Bhagavad Gita chapter 8, verse 21: That supreme ...
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234 views

If God is both omniscient and omnibenevolent, then, why do we need to pray?

The question I asked earlier on the Riddle of Epicurus was really a question on God's omnipotence and omnibenevolence, but here, I want to ask about God's omniscience and omnibenevolence. If God is ...
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383 views

How do Sri Vaishnavas interpret the “Vedas are not Vedas” quote in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad?

In Hindu philosophy there are three main Pramanas or valid means of knowledge: Pratyaksha or sensory evidence, Anumana or reasoning, and Shabda or revelation/scripture. But as I discuss in this ...
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What is the meaning of “renunciation of fruit/result of actions”?

BG in 12.12 says śreyo hi jñānam abhyāsāj jñānād dhyānaḿ viśiṣyate dhyānāt karma-phala-tyāgas tyāgāc chāntir anantaram “...better than meditation is renunciation of the fruits of action.....
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407 views

Where do the Vedas describe dreaming of a black-skinned man?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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195 views

regarding permanence of matter and earthly life

I am reading God Talks With Arjuna by Sri Sri Paramahansa Yogananda. In chapter 2 verse 20, I came across the following line in the interpretation: This stanza expresses the profound truth of the ...
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3answers
646 views

What scriptures discuss why the sky appears blue?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, ...
5
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2answers
394 views

Why does geeta call vedas as traigunya vishaya?

The famous verse of geeta is delivered as an upadesha which says arjuna that vedas are subject of trigunas and hence he should go beyond vedas i.e trigunas. त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवा...
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If Brahman is unattached, why does It remain attached to a devotee?

This answer to the Riddle of Epicurus says: These activities do not in any way bind Me, because I remain detached like one unconcerned in their midst. Gita 9.9 There is, however, one ...
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Is 'Why is there suffering?' a valid question according to Advaita philosophy?

Richard Dawkins in this debate argues that, in science, asking a question such as 'Why we exist?' or 'Why is there suffering in this world?' are not meaningful questions in the same sense as 'Why do ...
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Does Kumarila Bhatta say you're always reborn as the same species?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
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4answers
218 views

What should I [strictly] do to follow Hinduism as a way of life?

If I decide to follow Hinduism as a way of life, what exactly would I have to do, strictly according to the Vedanta philosophy? I want to know what ancient Hindu scriptures say regarding this, not ...
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427 views

Who believes in 10 Pramanas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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173 views

What is the context of an important Sutra from Sankarsha Kanda manuscripts?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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870 views

Does Adi Shankaracharya believe the existence of the soul requires scripture to establish?

In Hindu philosophy there are three main Pramanas or valid means of knowledge: Pratyaksha or sensory perception, Anumana or inference, and Shabda or revelation/scripture. And there is a hierarchy of ...
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189 views

Are Nishkama karma and Purusharthas opposed to each other?

Nishkama karma means desireless action, whereas, purushartha is all about desires and goals. Aren't these two opposed to each other? Which one should we follow?
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Have Hindu Philosophers attempted to solve problem of improbability of a creator him/her/it being more complex?

I know that many hindu philosphers believe God can be known only through scriptures. Brahma sutras also try to explain logically about nature of brahman etc.. Any place where the problem of ...
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What are the arguments of vedanta sutras against pAshupata sect?

Vedanta Sutras and its commentaries are said to be critical of pashupata sect. I think the second chapter talks about this in detail. What are the arguments raised against this school?
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Is there any hindu sect which does not believe in rebirth?

There are so many diverse practices and sects in Hinduism. Every kind of possible beliefs are available in one sect or another. This is conceptual richness of Hinduism. Now, every Hindu sect/...
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What's the response to the Cārvāka thought on animal sacrifice in a yajña?

How did other schools of Indian philosophy respond to this argument by the Cārvākas with regard to animal sacrifice as part of a yajña? If a beast slain in the Jyotishtoma rite will itself go to ...
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Have Hindu philosophies dealt with subjective vs. objective pramana (evidence)?

For example, most people who have eaten a mango will say it tastes sweet. Suppose a foreign person visiting India has never tasted a mango. He has also been advised by his countrymen that bright-...
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What is the Ekayana sect criticized by Pillai Lokacharya's father?

By far the most famous commentary on Nammalwar's Thiruvaimozhi is the Eedu, aka the 36000 Padi, which was composed by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Vadakku Thiruveedhi Pillai, father of Pillai Lokacharya. ...
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288 views

Why did Mandana Mishra defend the Sphotavada theory of language?

Mandana Mishra was a Purva Mimamsa philosopher who became an Advaitin after losing a debate to the Advaita philosopher Adi Shankaracharya. He's often identified with Sureshwaracharya, although that's ...
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How do different Vedantic philosophies prove the existence of the soul?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...