Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

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Where is this Srimad Bhagavatam verse about the different forms of Moksha?

According to Vaishnavism, there are six kinds of liberation from Samsara (the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth). They're each defined in relation to Vishnu, since Vaishnavas consider Vishnu to be ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
14 votes
0 answers
342 views

What are the different Vaishnava interpretations on the nature of Lord Vishnu's physical form?

I understand that Lord Vishnu's body is aprakrita, composed of sat-chit-ananda, but is it understood to have a physical reality? i.e. four arms, two legs, one head, two eyes, five fingered hands, ie, ...
Valarauko's user avatar
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13 votes
0 answers
649 views

What is the difference between Raudra and Saumya sects of Shaivism?

The term "Shaivite" is often overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they are actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
861 views

How do Dvaitins interpret the Advaita-sounding prayer of Prahlada?

In this chapter of the Vishnu Purana, Prahlada is thrown off a cliff and into the sea by Hiranyakashipu's men. Unfazed by this, he prays to Vishnu: I glorify the supreme deity Vishńu, the ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
10 votes
0 answers
1k views

What is the Nyaya argument for Karma being the instrumental cause of the Universe?

The Agama Pramanya is a work by the famous Sri Vaishnava Acharya Yamunacharya arguing that the Pancharatra texts, which are foundational to mainstream Vaishnavism as I discuss here, are legitimate ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
9 votes
0 answers
328 views

Where does the Advaitin commentator Anandagiri discuss the authenticity of Hindu stories?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
9 votes
0 answers
847 views

What Mleccha languages are used in the Vedas according to Purva Mimamsa?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
9 votes
0 answers
462 views

How does Ramanujacharya interpret a quote from Upavarsha's ancient Vritti?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
9 votes
0 answers
914 views

Do any commentaries on the Brahma Sutras say that animal sacrifice is immoral?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
465 views

How would dualistic schools of Vedanta (Vishistadvaitha and Dvaita) debate with a Buddhist?

As far as I know, Vishishtadvaitha and Dvaita base their arguments on Vedas. As Buddhists reject the Vedas, how would the dualistic schools of Vedanta debate with Buddhists and establish Veda pramanya?...
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8 votes
0 answers
731 views

Shunya (nothingness) vs Purna (fullness) -- How to reconcile the seemingly contradictive statements in Uttara Gita?

In the Uttara Gita Chapter 1, Sloka 35 describes the Atma as ऊर्ध्वशून्यमधःशून्यं मध्यशून्यं यदात्मकम् । सर्वशून्यं स आत्मेति समाधिस्थस्य लक्षणम् ॥ When (one perceives) the Atma is ...
Vishwanath N's user avatar
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8 votes
0 answers
282 views

What is Purva Mimansa Arthavada

Arthavada is a term associated with the least famous Purva Mimansa established by Rishi Jaimini. What is Arthavada and how does Uttara Mimansa counteract against this Arthavada?
Yogi's user avatar
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8 votes
0 answers
345 views

What does Madhvacharya mean by the Jiva "half-entering" Brahman during fainting?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
686 views

How does Purva Mimamsa explain mentions of human beings in the eternal Vedas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
168 views

Do all astika schools of thought in Hinduism believe that itihaas(Ramayan and Mahabharata) are really historic and not mythology?

There are many schools of thought in Hinduism So, do all astika schools of thought believe that Ramayan and Mahabharata are real history and not mythology?
Dark Knight's user avatar
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7 votes
0 answers
141 views

Which Sri Vaishnava works discuss Parashara’s Sharanagati for all Jivas?

The Sri Vaishnava sect has two sub-sects, Thenkalai and Vadakalai. Vadakalais follow the teachings of Vedanta Desikan, whereas Thenkalais follow the teachings of Pillai Lokacharya. My question is ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
242 views

How does Vedanta Desikan interpret Ramanujacharya’s statement about Brihaspati’s brother Samvarta?

The Satadhusani is a work by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Vedanta Desikan consisting of 100 refutations of Adi Shankaracharya's philosophy of Advaita. One chapter of the work is devoted to refuting the ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
411 views

What were the salient features of Ekayana Vaishnavism (Kashmiri Vaishnavism)?

Kashmir was once a hub of Sanskrit and Indian philosophies or traditions like Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Buddhism etc. In ancient times, a tradition called Kashmiri Vaishnavism also flourished which was ...
ㅤㅤㅤㅤㅤ's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
71 views

Which scripture claims to be essence of all Aranyakas?

Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text parts – the Samhitas, the Aranyakas, the Brahmanas, and the Upanishads. Now, Essence of all Samhitas --> compiled as Devata Kanda Sutras ...
zaxebo1's user avatar
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7 votes
0 answers
219 views

Did the Purva Mimamsa school think the Devas have no intelligence?

Udayana's Nyaya Kusumanjali is a Nyaya-Vaisheshika work which seeks to logically prove the existence of God. In this excerpt from the Nyaya Kusumanjali, Udayana describes how the Prana Pratishtha ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
489 views

Is Adi Shankaracharya's commentary on the Adhyatma Patala available online in English?

It is well-known that Adi Shankaracharya wrote commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishada, the Brahma Sutras, and the Vishnu Sahasranamam. But there's one commentary that's not as well known. ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
698 views

Has anyone responded to Ramanujacharya's refutation of the Cosmological Argument for the existence of God?

In Western philosophy, one of the most common arguments for the existence of God is the cosmological argument, which states roughly that everything has a cause, and so the Universe must have a cause, ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
2k views

Why do Vadakalai Sri Vaishnavas believe that Advaita liberation is not eternal?

Members of the Sri Vaishnava sect of Hinduism, especially the Iyengars (Sri Vaishnavas who are Brahmanas), are divided into two sub-sects, Thenkalais and Vadakalais. These two sub-sects both agree on ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
452 views

About Saura Tantra?

While exploring about Tantra, I came to know there is Saura Tantra too. It might be very ancient. So want to know the core philosophy and what are the principle Texts/Scriptures of Saura Tantra?
TheLittleNaruto's user avatar
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6 votes
0 answers
423 views

What are the differences in teachings between Yoga Vasista, Ashtavakra Gita, and Vivekachudamani?

Yoga Vasistha (योग-वासिष्ठ), Ashtavakra Gita (अष्टावक्रगीता), and Vivekachudamani (विवेकचूडामणि) are teachings about Enlightenment and (Moh)Maya. What are the Philosophical differences between these ...
Neel's user avatar
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6 votes
0 answers
395 views

How do different Vedantic philosophies prove the existence of the soul?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
1k views

What is the story of Kubera being cursed to turn into an elephant?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
398 views

What is the Suryakanta gem that produces fire from sunlight?

I've come across multiple scriptures and works of Acharyas which describe a Suryakanta gem, which seems to act like a magnifying glass, using sunlight to produce fire. Here's what this chapter of the ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
220 views

Did Vyasa and Baudhayana believe in 10 Pramanas and 8 Pramanas respectively?

The Manimekalai is a 6th century Tamil epic poem composed by the Buddhist poet Chithalai Chathanar. It talks about philosophy a lot, which given its early date means that it gives a rare glimpse into ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
631 views

Which Shaiva Agamas does Appayya Dikshitar consider anti-Vedic?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
242 views

What scriptures describe toads being found in the heart of solid rocks?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
198 views

Who are the Visaraga Yogis condemned by the Vaikhanasas?

As I discuss in this answer, one of the early movements that was important to the development of Vaishnavism was the ancient Pancharatra movement, whose sacred texts consisted of detailed procedures ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
375 views

What is the Ekayana sect criticized by Pillai Lokacharya's father?

By far the most famous commentary on Nammalwar's Thiruvaimozhi is the Eedu, aka the 36000 Padi, which was composed by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Vadakku Thiruveedhi Pillai, father of Pillai Lokacharya. ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
75 views

Do deities other than Brahma, Vishnu, Devi etc. have the power to create other universes?

I am aware that in many Hindu texts, famously the Puranas, explained that the gods Brahma creates universes constantly, Vishnu constantly creates universes by inhaling and exhaling also infinite ...
Orionixe's user avatar
  • 501
5 votes
0 answers
185 views

Have Hindu philosophies dealt with subjective vs. objective pramana (evidence)?

For example, most people who have eaten a mango will say it tastes sweet. Suppose a foreign person visiting India has never tasted a mango. He has also been advised by his countrymen that bright-...
ram's user avatar
  • 8,076
5 votes
0 answers
134 views

According to advaitins, which brahma sutra says that the world is mithya?

Advaitins believe that the world is mithya. There are advaita commentaries on the brahmasutras, most notably by Shankara himself. So according to advaitins, which brahmasutra or sutras say that the ...
user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
151 views

Where do the Brahma Sutras say number is not a quality?

The Vedanta Karikavali is a work by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Buchchi Venkatacharya summarizing the tenets of Visistadvaita. In particular, Visistadvaita says that there are two kinds of inanimate ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
508 views

Why did Mandana Mishra defend the Sphotavada theory of language?

Mandana Mishra was a Purva Mimamsa philosopher who became an Advaitin after losing a debate to the Advaita philosopher Adi Shankaracharya. He's often identified with Sureshwaracharya, although that's ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
691 views

How does the Vishnuswami sect differ from the Pushtimarg sect in philosophies and practices?

It is said Vishnu taught Vaishnavism to his prime devotees: Lord Shiva, Mother Lakshmi, the four Kumaras and Lord Brahma. These devotees then in turn taught mankind the principles of Vishnu bhakti. As ...
user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
297 views

Do any Purva Mimamsa philosophers agree with the Vedanta school's view of Arthavada?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
262 views

Which Purva Mimamsa philosophers think Brahman is the soul of the Vedas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
161 views

Where do the Vedas discuss Yagnas only bearing fruit in the afterlife?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
237 views

Where is the Sama Veda quote referenced in the Brahma Sutras?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
599 views

How do Shaivite philosophers interpret the Brahma Sutras' criticism of the Shaiva Agamas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
878 views

What kings passed on the Panchagni Vidya of the Upanishads?

As I discuss in the this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
56 views

What is a good roadmap to learn Shiva Visistadvaita philosophy?

I want to learn about Śrikānth Acharya's Shiva Visistadvaita. What is a good place to start for a beginner? I don't have any background in any philosophy before. Any resources, references and ideas ...
user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
71 views

Differences between Lingayats and Aradhyas?

Lingayat community was founded by Basavanna. What is the history of Aradhyas who are shiva followers too and they too wear lingas. What are the differences between these communities?
Hansiemithun's user avatar
  • 1,466
4 votes
0 answers
85 views

Is anyone exempt from law of karma?

Does the law of karma applies to the millions of gods and goddesses and avatars?
user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
47 views

How can insignificant beings (microscopic organisms, insects, plants, etc.) ever acquire enough merit to be born as humans?

And without earning a human birth, one cannot attain liberation.
user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
79 views

Can a sinner attain liberation and avoid hell just through bhakti?

I saw a picture of an elephant being saved from a crocodile by Vishnu. The caption read that the elephant was supposed to represent humans, and the crocodile was meant to be the hardships (punishments)...
Ploxguideme's user avatar