Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

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9
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0answers
528 views

What is the difference between Raudra and Saumya sects of Shaivism?

The term "Shaivite" is often overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they are actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss ...
8
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2answers
977 views

How do Dvaitins interpret this verse of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad?

The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is a part of the Shukla Yajur Veda. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad contains this verse (1.4.10): ब्रह्म वा इदमग्र आसीत्, तदात्मानमेवावेत् ‘अहं ब्रह्मास्मि’ इति । तस्मात् ...
8
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3answers
1k views

What is Fullness and Emptyness (void) according to the Vedas?

I was reading a post containing the following lines taken from Veda, where I could not understand. That is Fullness, this is Fullness; from Fullness comes Fullness. When Fullness is taken from ...
7
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1answer
1k views

Does Adi Shankaracharya equate Brahman with the causal body in his Brahma Sutra Bhashya?

As I discuss in this answer, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
7
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4answers
650 views

Why does the word “Atma” in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad refer to the mind rather than the actual Atma?

In Adhyaya 3 Brahmana 9 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the sage Yagnavalkya tells Vidagdha Sakalya what the eleven Rudras are associated with: katame rudrā iti । daśeme puruṣe prāṇā ātmaikādaśas ...
6
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1answer
234 views

Who was the solar dynasty king who was turned into a spider?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here ...
6
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2answers
2k views

Meaning of Citta?

The most prolific usage of the concept of 'Chittam' is in the Patanjali Yoga Sutras. The word is most identified with as part of 'Shat-Chit-Anandam' meaning existance-conciousness-bliss according to ...
6
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1answer
269 views

Does any doctrine/philosophy believe that Jiva emerges from (and merges into) Brahman?

According to Advaita, ultimately there is no difference between Jiva and Brahman. The individuality of Jivas are perceived due to the ignorance. (Actually Jiva never originates according to Gaudapada ...
5
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0answers
292 views

How do different Vedantic philosophies prove the existence of the soul?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
4
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0answers
182 views

Do Sri Vaishnavas believe Vishnu is the direct or indirect sustainer of the body?

The Rahasyatraya Sara is a work by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Vedanta Desikan, concerning the meaning of the Rahasya Traya or three secrets of the Sri Vaishnava sect (of which I am a member). (One of ...
4
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1answer
397 views

If there is a conflict between Pratyaksha pramana and Sruti, which one takes precedence according to Vishishtadvaita Vedanta?

Most schools of Vedanta accept only 3 sources of right knowledge (or pramana): Pratyaksha (empiricism/observation), Anumana (inference/reasoning), and Shabda (scriptures). According to Vedanta: ...
4
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2answers
416 views

How does Vishistaadvaita philosophy explain 'jiva' name for Lord Shriman Narayana

In the Vishnu Sahastranaam, there is a name 'jiva' assigned to Lord Shriman Narayana. jivo vinayita sahskhi mukundomita vikramahaa According to Vishistaadvaita Philosophy jiva and Bramhan are ...
3
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1answer
167 views

What is the Guru Parampara of the Samkhya philosopher Ishwara Krishna?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
3
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0answers
260 views

Where is the verse quoted in the Kaushitaki Upanishad about the Vedas as body parts of Brahman?

As I discuss in the this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage ...
3
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1answer
424 views

Are dreams created by Jivatma or Paramatma?

Are dreams created by Jivatma or Paramatma? What is the take of Badarayana as per Brahma Sutras and the three principal commentators on it viz. Ramanuja, Shankara and Madhva? Please provide relevant ...
3
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0answers
115 views

Do Nastika and Astika have direct translations in English? [duplicate]

We have a gross translation of Astika and Nastika as theism and Atheism. However, the etymology of Nastika (na-asti-ka) seems to indicate 'someone who does not believe in what exists`. Is there an ...
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0answers
67 views

Did the Samkhya school believe that destroying plants in Yagnas is a sin?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
11
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1answer
188 views

How do non-vedanta darshanas deal with shruti statements about Brahman?

Vedanta schools extensively deal with the concept of brahman. What do non-vedanta schools like nyaya-vaishesika, samkhya-yoga etc say about shruti statements about Brahman? How do they reconcile ...
11
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3answers
400 views

In Hinduism, what does “immortal” mean? Is there a limit on an immortal's lifespan?

I would like to clarify that this question is not about immortals, or about how to become an immortal. It is about the word immortal in Hinduism. We have a very brief idea, that an immortal is only a ...
10
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1answer
532 views

Reference request for Swami Vivekananda's quote on life coming from the moon

Swami Vivekananda makes a passing remark in one of his lectures (Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, V2 p90) of the following: By the by, it may interest some of you to know that there are ...
8
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2answers
384 views

What is the actual definition of Vedanta?

There are many versions of Vedanta available and most of them have drastic differences and contradictions. So is Vedanta is a loosely coined term or does it have a concrete definition? What is its ...
7
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1answer
388 views

Where do the Vedas say the cows of the gods walk on their backs?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
7
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3answers
757 views

What scriptures discuss why the sky appears blue?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, ...
7
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1answer
341 views

Is there any no need of worshipping/ believing God for material benefits? & For liberation, is recommended but optional?

This answer explains the need of worshipping God. The answerer is talking about the impossibility of getting liberation without being a devotee. But Gautam Buddha & Mahavir proved the statement ...
6
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1answer
531 views

Has Bhaskara's second-oldest Brahma Sutra Bhashya ever been translated into English?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
6
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0answers
205 views

What scriptures describe toads being found in the heart of solid rocks?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
5
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0answers
178 views

Which Purva Mimamsa philosophers think Brahman is the soul of the Vedas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
5
votes
1answer
495 views

Where do the Vedas describe dreaming of a black-skinned man?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
4
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1answer
129 views

Did the Samkhya school believe that animal sacrifice is an easily remedied sin?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
4
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0answers
319 views

Did the Shavite poet Tirumular believe new souls could be created?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
4
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1answer
455 views

Where is the passage about silence and Brahman preserved by Adi Shankaracharya?

In this excerpt from his book "Spiritual Heritage of India", Swami Prabhavananda quotes a number of passages from the Upanishads concerning the indescribability of Brahman. In particular, ...
3
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1answer
107 views

How are the object and the subject one and the same?

I basically wanted the proof of all is ONE and Prakrithi and Purusha are the same.
2
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1answer
2k views

Meaning of Sadhana , Tapasya and Yoga (साधना ,तपस्या & योग)?

In spiritual practices of Hinduism or Adhyatma ,We often hear these three words -: 1) Sadhana 2) Tapasya 3) Yoga. My questions are -: 1) Are these terms similar or related to each other? 2) ...
0
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1answer
208 views

Is the Karma theory falsifiable? Is there an accurate definition of the Karma theory? [closed]

Do we understand enough about the Karma theory that it can be accurately defined so that if someone wanted to refute the theory, they can provide evidence to disprove it? In other words, is the Karma ...
21
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8answers
12k views

Did ancient Yogis float in the air and what is the method to do it?

"In Ancient India Yogis used to float in the Air" I am not sure about this statement but I heard people who have more concentration (possibly through Yoga) floated wherever they wanted. My question ...
5
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1answer
209 views

What do the different Astika schools think the Universe is made of?

There are two kinds of schools of Indian philosophy, Astika and Nastika. Astikas accept the authority of the Vedas, whereas Nastikas reject the authority of the Vedas. The Astika schools are part of ...
6
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1answer
208 views

What is the context of an important Sutra from Sankarsha Kanda manuscripts?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
6
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1answer
2k views

What are Avidya, Maya and Ignorance according to Advaita?

According to Advaita, I want to get a clear understanding of the following terms: Avidya Maya Ignorance What are Avidya, Maya and Ignorance? And what is the difference/relationship between them? In ...
10
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2answers
2k views

How does Dvaita philosophy explain Moksha?

From what I've understood, Moksha means attaining union with the Supreme Soul. But Dvaita philosophy says that the individual souls (jiivatma) are different from the Supreme Soul (paramatma). If ...
10
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1answer
227 views

Has Hinduism ever tried to enfold Christianity (or other semitic religions)?

I am currently reading Swami Prabhavananda The Spiritual Heritage of India (1962) and find it very clear and informative (better than e.g. Heinrich Zimmer's Philosophies of India so far). Early on it ...
9
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1answer
421 views

How is the all pervading God said to reside in the Daharakasha?

It is understood that the space within the heart, which is the corresponding microscopic form of the macroscopic form of Space, is known in metaphysical terms as Daharakasha(tiniest cosmos). The all ...
7
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5answers
1k views

How can the ideology of Cārvāka exist within Hinduism?

Cārvāka (or charvak), which is a sub-ideology within Hinduism, contains highly conflicting ideals with the core religious views. For example, it's dominantly atheistic (and that sort of defeats the ...
7
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1answer
362 views

How does Vishishtadvaita interpret “One without a second”?

There are some Advaita sounding verses in the Upanishads which declare that there is only one without a second in the beginning: Aitareya Upanishad 1.1.1: ॐ आत्मा वा इदमेक एवाग्र आसीन्नान्यत्किंचन ...
6
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2answers
1k views

Does Adi Shankaracharya believe the existence of the soul requires scripture to establish?

In Hindu philosophy there are three main Pramanas or valid means of knowledge: Pratyaksha or sensory perception, Anumana or inference, and Shabda or revelation/scripture. And there is a hierarchy of ...
6
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2answers
177 views

Does kalpa bheda explanation for reconciling different narrative in puranas have scriptural basis?

Some sects use kalpa bheda or manvantara bheda to explain contradictions in the events narrated differently in different puranas and when there exists no way to reconcile them. Does such explanation ...
6
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1answer
235 views

What's the response to the Cārvāka thought on animal sacrifice in a yajña?

How did other schools of Indian philosophy respond to this argument by the Cārvākas with regard to animal sacrifice as part of a yajña? If a beast slain in the Jyotishtoma rite will itself go to ...
3
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3answers
205 views

Why should god bless us & fulfil our wishes?

Whenever we wish for something to God, why should god provide us with what we ask? What does god get by giving, whatever we wish for? Does god fulfilling our wishes is also part of the plan of God?
2
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1answer
330 views

Where does the Mahabharata say that liberated souls worship Krishna?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
13
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0answers
291 views

What are the various forms of Vishnu according to Pancharatra?

Recently while reading Prasthana Bheda of Madhusudan Sarasvati, I found he mentioned four forms of Vishnu according to Pancharatra: Quoting from sanskritdocuments.org: एवं वैष्णवं नारदादिभिः कृतं ...
9
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4answers
1k views

Are there Hindu scriptural references for “Simulation hypothesis” or the “theory of simulation”?

Simulation hypothesis is a theory which is available in both philosophy as well as science. There is a long philosophical and scientific history to the underlying thesis that reality is an illusion....