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Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

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6
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1answer
235 views

Does any doctrine/philosophy believe that Jiva emerges from (and merges into) Brahman?

According to Advaita, ultimately there is no difference between Jiva and Brahman. The individuality of Jivas are perceived due to the ignorance. (Actually Jiva never originates according to Gaudapada ...
5
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0answers
268 views

How do different Vedantic philosophies prove the existence of the soul?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
4
votes
1answer
295 views

If there is a conflict between Pratyaksha pramana and Sruti, which one takes precedence according to Vishishtadvaita Vedanta?

Most schools of Vedanta accept only 3 sources of right knowledge (or pramana): Pratyaksha (empiricism/observation), Anumana (inference/reasoning), and Shabda (scriptures). According to Vedanta: ...
4
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2answers
363 views

How does Vishistaadvaita philosophy explain 'jiva' name for Lord Shriman Narayana

In the Vishnu Sahastranaam, there is a name 'jiva' assigned to Lord Shriman Narayana. jivo vinayita sahskhi mukundomita vikramahaa According to Vishistaadvaita Philosophy jiva and Bramhan are ...
4
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0answers
169 views

Do Sri Vaishnavas believe Vishnu is the direct or indirect sustainer of the body?

The Rahasyatraya Sara is a work by the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Vedanta Desikan, concerning the meaning of the Rahasya Traya or three secrets of the Sri Vaishnava sect (of which I am a member). (One of ...
3
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1answer
362 views

Are dreams created by Jivatma or Paramatma?

Are dreams created by Jivatma or Paramatma? What is the take of Badarayana as per Brahma Sutras and the three principal commentators on it viz. Ramanuja, Shankara and Madhva? Please provide relevant ...
3
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0answers
238 views

Where is the verse quoted in the Kaushitaki Upanishad about the Vedas as body parts of Brahman?

As I discuss in the this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage ...
2
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0answers
63 views

Did the Samkhya school believe that destroying plants in Yagnas is a sin?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
11
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3answers
363 views

In Hinduism, what does “immortal” mean? Is there a limit on an immortal's lifespan?

I would like to clarify that this question is not about immortals, or about how to become an immortal. It is about the word immortal in Hinduism. We have a very brief idea, that an immortal is only a ...
11
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1answer
145 views

How do non-vedanta darshanas deal with shruti statements about Brahman?

Vedanta schools extensively deal with the concept of brahman. What do non-vedanta schools like nyaya-vaishesika, samkhya-yoga etc say about shruti statements about Brahman? How do they reconcile ...
10
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1answer
496 views

Reference request for Swami Vivekananda's quote on life coming from the moon

Swami Vivekananda makes a passing remark in one of his lectures (Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, V2 p90) of the following: By the by, it may interest some of you to know that there are ...
7
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2answers
335 views

What is the actual definition of Vedanta?

There are many versions of Vedanta available and most of them have drastic differences and contradictions. So is Vedanta is a loosely coined term or does it have a concrete definition? What is its ...
7
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0answers
439 views

What is the difference between Raudra and Saumya sects of Shaivism?

The term "Shaivite" is often overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they are actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and ...
6
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0answers
188 views

What scriptures describe toads being found in the heart of solid rocks?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
6
votes
1answer
963 views

Does Adi Shankaracharya equate Brahman with the causal body in his Brahma Sutra Bhashya?

As I discuss in this answer, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
6
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0answers
414 views

Has Bhaskara's second-oldest Brahma Sutra Bhashya ever been translated into English?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
6
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0answers
258 views

Where do the Vedas say the cows of the gods walk on their backs?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
5
votes
1answer
431 views

Where do the Vedas describe dreaming of a black-skinned man?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
5
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3answers
662 views

What scriptures discuss why the sky appears blue?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, ...
4
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0answers
140 views

Which Purva Mimamsa philosophers think Brahman is the soul of the Vedas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
4
votes
1answer
365 views

Where is the passage about silence and Brahman preserved by Adi Shankaracharya?

In this excerpt from his book "Spiritual Heritage of India", Swami Prabhavananda quotes a number of passages from the Upanishads concerning the indescribability of Brahman. In particular, he says ...
4
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0answers
286 views

Did the Shavite poet Tirumular believe new souls could be created?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
4
votes
1answer
107 views

Did the Samkhya school believe that animal sacrifice is an easily remedied sin?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

How are the object and the subject one and the same?

I basically wanted the proof of all is ONE and Prakrithi and Purusha are the same.
2
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1answer
2k views

Meaning of Sadhana , Tapasya and Yoga (साधना ,तपस्या & योग)?

In spiritual practices of Hinduism or Adhyatma ,We often hear these three words -: 1) Sadhana 2) Tapasya 3) Yoga. My questions are -: 1) Are these terms similar or related to each other? 2) ...
0
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1answer
196 views

Is the Karma theory falsifiable? Is there an accurate definition of the Karma theory? [closed]

Do we understand enough about the Karma theory that it can be accurately defined so that if someone wanted to refute the theory, they can provide evidence to disprove it? In other words, is the Karma ...
20
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8answers
10k views

Did ancient Yogis float in the air and what is the method to do it?

"In Ancient India Yogis used to float in the Air" I am not sure about this statement but I heard people who have more concentration (possibly through Yoga) floated wherever they wanted. My question ...
5
votes
1answer
164 views

What do the different Astika schools think the Universe is made of?

There are two kinds of schools of Indian philosophy, Astika and Nastika. Astikas accept the authority of the Vedas, whereas Nastikas reject the authority of the Vedas. The Astika schools are part of ...
14
votes
3answers
748 views

When were Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism marked as separate religions?

Historically, Buddhism and Jainism were just some of the many sects or philosophical schools in ancient times. When was the separation of religions happened and when were all vedic and non-vedic sects ...
6
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1answer
2k views

What are Avidya, Maya and Ignorance according to Advaita?

According to Advaita, I want to get a clear understanding of the following terms: Avidya Maya Ignorance What are Avidya, Maya and Ignorance? And what is the difference/relationship between them? In ...
10
votes
1answer
210 views

Has Hinduism ever tried to enfold Christianity (or other semitic religions)?

I am currently reading Swami Prabhavananda The Spiritual Heritage of India (1962) and find it very clear and informative (better than e.g. Heinrich Zimmer's Philosophies of India so far). Early on it ...
10
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2answers
2k views

How does Dvaita philosophy explain Moksha?

From what I've understood, Moksha means attaining union with the Supreme Soul. But Dvaita philosophy says that the individual souls (jiivatma) are different from the Supreme Soul (paramatma). If ...
9
votes
1answer
248 views

How is the all pervading God said to reside in the Daharakasha?

It is understood that the space within the heart, which is the corresponding microscopic form of the macroscopic form of Space, is known in metaphysical terms as Daharakasha(tiniest cosmos). The all ...
7
votes
1answer
277 views

How does Vishishtadvaita interpret “One without a second”?

There are some Advaita sounding verses in the Upanishads which declare that there is only one without a second in the beginning: Aitareya Upanishad 1.1.1: ॐ आत्मा वा इदमेक एवाग्र आसीन्नान्यत्किंचन ...
7
votes
5answers
1k views

How can the ideology of Cārvāka exist within Hinduism?

Cārvāka (or charvak), which is a sub-ideology within Hinduism, contains highly conflicting ideals with the core religious views. For example, it's dominantly atheistic (and that sort of defeats the ...
5
votes
1answer
181 views

What is the context of an important Sutra from Sankarsha Kanda manuscripts?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
5
votes
2answers
913 views

Does Adi Shankaracharya believe the existence of the soul requires scripture to establish?

In Hindu philosophy there are three main Pramanas or valid means of knowledge: Pratyaksha or sensory perception, Anumana or inference, and Shabda or revelation/scripture. And there is a hierarchy of ...
3
votes
3answers
180 views

Why should god bless us & fulfil our wishes?

Whenever we wish for something to God, why should god provide us with what we ask? What does god get by giving, whatever we wish for? Does god fulfilling our wishes is also part of the plan of God?
13
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0answers
256 views

What are the various forms of Vishnu according to Pancharatra?

Recently while reading Prasthana Bheda of Madhusudan Sarasvati, I found he mentioned four forms of Vishnu according to Pancharatra: Quoting from sanskritdocuments.org: एवं वैष्णवं नारदादिभिः कृतं ...
9
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4answers
982 views

Are there Hindu scriptural references for “Simulation hypothesis” or the “theory of simulation”?

Simulation hypothesis is a theory which is available in both philosophy as well as science. There is a long philosophical and scientific history to the underlying thesis that reality is an illusion....
7
votes
4answers
477 views

Is there a Darshana/Philosophy based on Agamas?

We know that Hindu philosophy refers to Shad Darshana viz. Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimansa and Vedanta. These Darshan/philosophies are based on various Darshan Sutras witten by Rishis. The ...
5
votes
1answer
401 views

How do Sri Vaishnavas interpret the “Vedas are not Vedas” quote in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad?

In Hindu philosophy there are three main Pramanas or valid means of knowledge: Pratyaksha or sensory evidence, Anumana or reasoning, and Shabda or revelation/scripture. But as I discuss in this ...
5
votes
1answer
183 views

What's the response to the Cārvāka thought on animal sacrifice in a yajña?

How did other schools of Indian philosophy respond to this argument by the Cārvākas with regard to animal sacrifice as part of a yajña? If a beast slain in the Jyotishtoma rite will itself go to ...
4
votes
1answer
118 views

How do different Astika schools prove the existence of the soul?

There are two kinds of schools of Indian philosophy, Astika and Nastika. Astikas accept the authority of the Vedas, whereas Nastikas reject the authority of the Vedas. The Astika schools are part of ...
4
votes
0answers
179 views

What is the (potentially lost) text of the Jabalas quoted by Adi Shankaracharya?

In his commentary on Adhyaya 4 Pada 1 Sutra 3 of the Brahma Sutras, Adi Shankaracharya presents a number of scriptural quotes to support his Advaita view that the individual soul of jivatma is the ...
4
votes
0answers
263 views

Who is the earliest Advaitin to mention six Pramanas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
3
votes
1answer
418 views

How does Vishishtadvaita interpret “Brahma Ved Brahmaiva Bhavati”?

From Mundaka Upanishad, Mundaka-3, Khanda-2 Verse-9: स यो ह वै तत् परमं ब्रह्म वेद ब्रह्मैव भवति नास्याब्रह्मवित्कुले भवति । तरति शोकं तरति पाप्मानं गुहाग्रन्थिभ्यो विमुक्तोऽमृतो भवति ॥ ९॥ ...
2
votes
1answer
107 views

Which schools prior to the Gautam Buddha gave the finite size of the atma (आत्मा )?

Gautam Buddha is said to talk about Self in his teachings later during third turning of wheel (or call it whatever). He said about the self like this which is Advaitic & in agreement with both ...
2
votes
1answer
278 views

Soul-creation and Vedanta [duplicate]

Do all VedAnta philosophies, that is, philosophies based on badarAyana's brahma sutra, reject creation of souls by God?
1
vote
1answer
572 views

What commentaries on the Samkhya Karika are available in English?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...