Questions tagged [philosophy]

Questions about Hindu Philosophy, which is divided into six main schools: Sankhya (also called Samkhya), Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika(Vaiśeṣika), Mimamsa and Vedanta.

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1answer
674 views

What is Prashtantrayi?

I have heard this name many times related to Adi Shankaracharya. He has given many lectures about Prasthantrayi. Is this any Upanishad, Purana or else? I just want to know some brief detail about ...
6
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1answer
566 views

What does Brahma sutras say about Susupti state?

Susupti is a state of deep sleep in which there is no experience of dreams (Svapnanubhavah) What does Badarayana say about it in Brahma sutras and what is take of Advatin, Visiatadvaitins and ...
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3answers
2k views

Vivekachudamani Of Adi Sankaracharya

I have the "Vivekachudamani" of Adi Sankaracharya in Sanskrit language with word-by-word meaning in Hindi but still I am finding very difficult to understand it. Is there any Online site (for Hard ...
6
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1answer
265 views

Does any doctrine/philosophy believe that Jiva emerges from (and merges into) Brahman?

According to Advaita, ultimately there is no difference between Jiva and Brahman. The individuality of Jivas are perceived due to the ignorance. (Actually Jiva never originates according to Gaudapada ...
6
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1answer
763 views

What does the Vivarana school of Advaita believe about the nature of Avidya?

It's well known that the Sri Vaishnava sect, which subscribes to the Visishtadvaita philosophy of Ramanujacharya, is divided into two sects, the Thenkalais and Vadakalais as I discuss here. Less well-...
6
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1answer
360 views

Why is charvaka system considered wrong?

In this question I asked about philosophies and in the answer Be-Happy writes following lines But the warning is valid because apart from the accepted philosophy and systems there are also systems ...
6
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1answer
2k views

Is there a concept of soul mate in Hinduism?

I have come across many philosophies in Hinduism with regards to the soul or "atman". I was just curious if there is any concept of soul mate explained in Hinduism? Can anyone enlighten?
6
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1answer
113 views

How I can refute Madhyamaka- Shunyata?

Have any Hindu acharyas debunked shunyata as propounded by Madhyamika? I am a former Tibetan Buddhist, and to my knowledge emptiness depends on co-dependant arising,if we refute that then all of ...
6
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1answer
253 views

Has any Advaita Acharya or scholar resolved/answered/refuted Sapta Vidha Anupapatti?

As, I've mentioned in previous question, Sapta Vidha Aupapatti, also called seven untenables are said to be an objection raised against the concept of Avidya of Advaita Vedanta. I want to know has ...
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1answer
206 views

What is the context of an important Sutra from Sankarsha Kanda manuscripts?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
6
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2answers
480 views

Why did Vedvyasa mention his shishya Jaimini's opinion/saying in Brahma Sutra?

I started reading the BrahmaSutra and have completed 1.2. I found Vedavyasa mentions Jaimini in his sutra: साक्षादप्यविरोधं जैमिनिः।।1.2.28।। Jaimini (declares that there is) no contradiction ...
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1answer
460 views

What are different Vadas associated with different philosophies?

We know that there are six Astika schools of philosophy (Darshana, Sanskrit: दर्शन) which are Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimansa and Vedanta. And further there are sub-schools of Vedanta viz. ...
6
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2answers
540 views

Why does geeta call vedas as traigunya vishaya?

The famous verse of geeta is delivered as an upadesha which says arjuna that vedas are subject of trigunas and hence he should go beyond vedas i.e trigunas. त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवा...
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4answers
241 views

What should I [strictly] do to follow Hinduism as a way of life?

If I decide to follow Hinduism as a way of life, what exactly would I have to do, strictly according to the Vedanta philosophy? I want to know what ancient Hindu scriptures say regarding this, not ...
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297 views

According to Hindu philosophy, what are the flaws in Buddha's teachings?

What are the flaws in Buddhism according to Hindu philosophers? Did Buddha really reject the Vedas and Hinduism?
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1answer
123 views

How did the Purva Mimamsa school explain Gotras?

If the Purva Mimamsa school believes that the Earth and humans are eternal, then how does it explain ancestral Gotras, such descendants of Bharadwaj, Angirasa, etc?
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1k views

Does Adi Shankaracharya believe the existence of the soul requires scripture to establish?

In Hindu philosophy there are three main Pramanas or valid means of knowledge: Pratyaksha or sensory perception, Anumana or inference, and Shabda or revelation/scripture. And there is a hierarchy of ...
6
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1answer
185 views

Why do Advaitins strive to realize Brahman if only Brahman exists?

If, as Advaitins say, only Brahman ultimately exists then why do saints like Shankaracharyas and others strive to realise Brahman and for that live an austere life? After all, in Advaita Brahman ...
6
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1answer
231 views

What's the response to the Cārvāka thought on animal sacrifice in a yajña?

How did other schools of Indian philosophy respond to this argument by the Cārvākas with regard to animal sacrifice as part of a yajña? If a beast slain in the Jyotishtoma rite will itself go to ...
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2answers
517 views

Aesthetics in Hinduism

Is there a branch of philosophy in Hinduism about aesthetics? By aesthetics I mean the western notions of the term as we currently understand to be one of the main branches of western philosophy. I do ...
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1answer
966 views

What is the relation between Viraj, Hiranyagarbha, Brahma, and Saguna Brahman in Advaita terminology?

In this chapter of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the sage Yagnavalkya tells his disciple king Janaka about the levels of bliss among beings in different Lokas: Now a hundred of these human blessings ...
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1answer
2k views

What are Avidya, Maya and Ignorance according to Advaita?

According to Advaita, I want to get a clear understanding of the following terms: Avidya Maya Ignorance What are Avidya, Maya and Ignorance? And what is the difference/relationship between them? In ...
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181 views

What are the differences in teachings between Yoga Vasista, Ashtavakra Gita, and Vivekachudamani?

Yoga Vasistha (योग-वासिष्ठ), Ashtavakra Gita (अष्टावक्रगीता), and Vivekachudamani (विवेकचूडामणि) are teachings about Enlightenment and (Moh)Maya. What are the Philosophical differences between these ...
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57 views

Which scripture claims to be essence of all Aranyakas?

Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text parts – the Samhitas, the Aranyakas, the Brahmanas, and the Upanishads. Now, Essence of all Samhitas --> compiled as Devata Kanda Sutras ...
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80 views

What's that which make something insentient and other sentient? [duplicate]

Consciosness is ever present everywhere. There is no place where it is not! So on what basis something becomes insentient & other sentient according to Kashmiri Shaivism or Tantra?
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133 views

Did the Purva Mimamsa school think the Devas have no intelligence?

Udayana's Nyaya Kusumanjali is a Nyaya-Vaisheshika work which seeks to logically prove the existence of God. In this excerpt from the Nyaya Kusumanjali, Udayana describes how the Prana Pratishtha ...
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273 views

What is the story of the Pishacha who overheard the Bhagavad Gita?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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267 views

What is the Suryakanta gem that produces fire from sunlight?

I've come across multiple scriptures and works of Acharyas which describe a Suryakanta gem, which seems to act like a magnifying glass, using sunlight to produce fire. Here's what this chapter of the ...
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113 views

Did Vyasa and Baudhayana believe in 10 Pramanas and 8 Pramanas respectively?

The Manimekalai is a 6th century Tamil epic poem composed by the Buddhist poet Chithalai Chathanar. It talks about philosophy a lot, which given its early date means that it gives a rare glimpse into ...
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217 views

What is Purva Mimansa Arthavada

Arthavada is a term associated with the least famous Purva Mimansa established by Rishi Jaimini. What is Arthavada and how does Uttara Mimansa counteract against this Arthavada?
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387 views

Which Shaiva Agamas does Appayya Dikshitar consider anti-Vedic?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
6
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0answers
203 views

What scriptures describe toads being found in the heart of solid rocks?

The term "Shaivite" is overused nowadays. For instance, Iyer Brahmins are often called Shaivites, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (which I discuss here and here), ...
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797 views

Any rules that I need to follow if I want to read the Bhagavad Gita? [duplicate]

If I want to start reading the Bhagavad Gita. What rules, if any, that I need to follow before I start reading? For example: Do I need to perform any religious rituals before reading the Gita? Can I ...
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0answers
493 views

Has Bhaskara's second-oldest Brahma Sutra Bhashya ever been translated into English?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
6
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0answers
481 views

How does Purva Mimamsa explain mentions of human beings in the eternal Vedas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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2answers
572 views

Why did Brihaspati establish Charvaka or materialistic philosophical Sect?

Brihaspati is DevaGuru, the spiritual Guru of the Gods. More so, He is the planet of Spirituality​. Brihaspati is the God of all knowledge and intellect. So Brihaspati could bring the philosophical or ...
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1answer
224 views

Who is the Rishi who cut off his own hands for stealing?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
5
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2answers
361 views

Did Kumarila Bhatta believe in Nishkama Karma as a valid means to Moksha?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
5
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2answers
685 views

lokavat tu lila kaivalyam [Brh. Su. - 2.1.33] - The creation is merely a sport of Brahman

lokavat tu lila kaivalyam [Brahma Sutras - 2.1.33] The creation is merely a sport of Brahman. So does it look like God created us for fun?
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3answers
536 views

How many commentaries have there been of the Nyaya Sutras?

The Nyaya Sutras, composed by the Gautama, is one of the most important Indian philosophical texts and forms the basis of Nyaya school of thought. Now, how many commentaries are there of these Sutras?...
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1answer
206 views

What do the different Astika schools think the Universe is made of?

There are two kinds of schools of Indian philosophy, Astika and Nastika. Astikas accept the authority of the Vedas, whereas Nastikas reject the authority of the Vedas. The Astika schools are part of ...
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2answers
263 views

Book recommendation for a thorough treatise on Rishi Gautama's Nyaya Shastra?

An English translation with original Sanskrit verses would be ideal. It should cover all aspects/teachings contained in the Nyaya philosophy.
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3answers
459 views

Is every being a God?

According to Kaivalya Upanishad: He(Supreme Brahman) alone is all that was, and all that will be, the Eternal. Knowing Him, one transcends death. There is no other way to freedom. We know ...
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1answer
258 views

Six Classical Schools in Hindu Philosophy

I have been reading about the six classical schools of Hindu philosophy (also known as the Shad-Darshan system). Did all of these schools exist simultaneously and debate with each other (thereby ...
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1answer
150 views

How do dvaitins interpret this verse from Bhagavad Gita?

In chapter 8.21, Krishna Paramatma says that eternal unmanifest abode as supreme abode of him and never mentions any separate place as his abode. Bhagavad Gita chapter 8, verse 21: That supreme ...
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1answer
103 views

Are there verses from scriptures which list 24 tattvas according to Sankhya Darshana?

As we have seen previously that Hinduism believes in the field-fielder (Kshetra–Kshetragna) theory. Prakruti is the field and Purusha is its fielder. Similarly, body is a field (kshetra) and the soul ...
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2answers
286 views

If God is both omniscient and omnibenevolent, then, why do we need to pray?

The question I asked earlier on the Riddle of Epicurus was really a question on God's omnipotence and omnibenevolence, but here, I want to ask about God's omniscience and omnibenevolence. If God is ...
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1answer
488 views

How do Sri Vaishnavas interpret the “Vedas are not Vedas” quote in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad?

In Hindu philosophy there are three main Pramanas or valid means of knowledge: Pratyaksha or sensory evidence, Anumana or reasoning, and Shabda or revelation/scripture. But as I discuss in this ...
5
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3answers
192 views

Why ignorance/believing causes suffering?

Ok, so I understand the concept of consciousness and it is awareness witnessing across 3 bodies namely physical, subtle and one corresponding to deep sleep. And since "we" are ignorant of it, we ...
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1answer
291 views

What is the meaning of “renunciation of fruit/result of actions”?

BG in 12.12 says śreyo hi jñānam abhyāsāj jñānād dhyānaḿ viśiṣyate dhyānāt karma-phala-tyāgas tyāgāc chāntir anantaram “...better than meditation is renunciation of the fruits of action.....

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