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Questions tagged [pramana]

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What are predictions with proper nouns in mahabharat and ramayan about kaliyug that have came true?

I want to know textual prediction about kaliyug with proper nouns(reffering to specific place like on xyz place,xyz incident will happen/nation) that have come true means have happened from valmiki ...
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0 votes
0 answers
58 views

Why Bhagvad Geeta is classified as Smriti and not Shruti? Even though it was told directly by Brahman in the form of Shri Krishna? [duplicate]

In the Bhagvad Geeta, the Parabrahman had proved his Authenticity, Authority and the divine knowledge. It is the only book so far where god refers himself with "I". So, why should it be ...
Raxit Soni's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
33 views

Is flag salutation of temple is equal to Statue (Idol) salutation?

We used to do salutations (Pranama) to god's idol and do prayer front of it in temple. But what if someone unable to go into temple due any reason and do salutation(Pranama) to flag(Dhawja) hoisted ...
Hardik Upadhyay's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
150 views

Can demons give visions as Gods to humans?

Can demons appear as Gods to humans, in order to spread Adharma among humans? And if this is possible, how should one distinguish between a vision from a demon and a vision from a god?
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1 vote
0 answers
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Did followers of all Astika schools perform Vedic rituals?

While all the Astika schools of thought accept Vedas as one of pramana. Only Mimansa consider performing Vedic rituals as way to attain Moksha. So, did followers of other schools like Nyaya, Samkhya, ...
Manoj Ramesh's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
48 views

Do the Vedas say they are eternal?

Many Hindu theologians, especially those of the Vedanta school, believe that not just the meaning, but the very words and sentences of the Vedas are eternal. Is there any support in the Vedas ...
Kos Loaes's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
420 views

What is the correct way to recognize varna by astrology?

Most northern Indian astrologers define varna by the sign of the zodiac occupied by the Moon. Most South Indian astrologers define varna by the nakshatra occupied by the Moon. And what is the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
372 views

What is the authentic Mula Mantra of Kala Bhairava?

On the Internet, without any difficulties, you can find many different mantras of Kala Bhairava, but the specific source of origin of these mantras (Tantra, Agama, Grantha, etc.) is always not ...
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0 votes
0 answers
98 views

Why does Ramanujacharya reject yoga-pratyaksha as a pramana?

In the Sri Bhashya, his commentary on the Brahma Sutras, Ramanujacharya rejects "yoga pratyaksha" (yogic perception) as a pramana: (Paraphrased by me for readability) Perception is of two ...
Ikshvaku's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
92 views

Is there a pramana to know the existence of the pramanas?

In the Vedic epistemology (theory of knowledge), there are three pramanas (means of knowledge): Pratyaksha (perception, experience, memory, etc.) Anumana (logic, inference, reasoning, etc.) Shabda (...
Ikshvaku's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
398 views

What is Akhyati vada of Prabhakara school and how does it compare with Anirvacaniya khyati of Advaitins?

Here, this is what's said of Akhyati Vada A-Khyati Advocated by Prabhakara school of Purva-Mimamsa. Does not admit of error in the logical sense. No logical distinction between knowledge and ...
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2 votes
2 answers
567 views

What exactly is Abhinava Anyatha Khyati of Madhwas?

Khyativada is the theory of error in Hindu an Indic philosophies There are eight other Khyatis (Refer for detailed information) Atma-Khyati A-Khyati Sadasat-khyati Anirvachniya-khyati Asat-Khyati ...
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0 votes
1 answer
236 views

What is the meaning of "MOKSHA"? [duplicate]

How can one realize he has attained "MOKSHA" After becoming free several times, one can remember the accumulated experiences of hardships, depriving oneself of pleasure, abstinence through ...
user37920's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
948 views

How do Hindus refute the Muslim belief that the Quran is Apaurusheya? [closed]

Just like how Hindus believe the Vedas are Apaurusheya, Muslims also think that their Quran is Apaurusheya. This is a traditional belief of Islam: Createdness refers to the Islamic doctrinal position ...
Ikshvaku's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
177 views

What should we consider when Anumana contradicts Shabda?

According to Vedantic pramana system Anumana is Inferential knowledge and Shabda is Scriptural/Testimonial knowledge. So when these two contradict each other which one should we consider as true? ...
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9 votes
5 answers
1k views

Is science any different from religion when it comes to "falsifiability" of claims? Which Pramana is different between the two? [closed]

Scientists claim that the underlying notion of a theory is falsifiability i.e. the ability to disprove a statement by performing an experiment laid out by the scientist. Rishis claim that the ...
ram's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
187 views

Have Hindu philosophies dealt with subjective vs. objective pramana (evidence)?

For example, most people who have eaten a mango will say it tastes sweet. Suppose a foreign person visiting India has never tasted a mango. He has also been advised by his countrymen that bright-...
ram's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
112 views

What is the pramanya of the Naalayira Divya Prabhandham?

The Naalayira Divya Prabhandham are 4,000 verses in Tamil spoken by ancient Tamil Vaishnava saints (Alwars) that are revered by Sri Vaishnavas. They are so important that they are epistemologically ...
Ikshvaku's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
556 views

How does Shri Adi Shankaracharya or any Advaiti establish anumana as pramana, as the whole world is Mithyatmaka and is Maya?

I know that Charuvakas only accept Pratyaksha. Dvaithis and Vishishtadvaithis accept Pratyaksha, Anumana and Agama(Shabdha). But I was kind of surprised to know that Advaithis accept all the six ...
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3 votes
0 answers
74 views

What are all the empirical observations made by Kaṇāda in his Vaiśeṣika Sūtras?

Kaṇāda, the natural scientist and philosopher, appears to have studied nature, made some direct observations and recorded them in his Vaiśeṣika Sūtras. Wikipedia lists a few but I want to know all of ...
Say No To Censorship's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
744 views

What do ancient Hindu acharyas say about accepting the authority of Shruti but denying the authority of Smriti?

Some people nowadays say only the Shruti (Vedas) is the sole authority in regard to Dharma, and what is not Shruti, like the Smriti, Dharma Shastras, Puranas, etc. is man-made and can be rejected. ...
Ikshvaku's user avatar
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-3 votes
2 answers
443 views

What does "belief in the Vedas" actually mean?

What does belief in the Vedas or accepting the authority of the Vedas actually mean? Vedas have some mythological stories like women accepting the boon of menstruation from Indra (YV II 5.1). Then ...
Say No To Censorship's user avatar
12 votes
1 answer
1k views

Where is this verse from in the Vedas about the Manusmriti?

This verse is said to exist in the Vedas: yad vai manuravadat tad bheṣajam ‘Whatever Manu has said is medicine.’
Ikshvaku's user avatar
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7 votes
0 answers
177 views

If there is a contradiction between Pratyaksha Pramana and Sabda Pramana, which one is more authoritative according to Advaita and Dvaita Vedanta?

According to this answer if there is a contradiction between Pratyaksha and Sruti(Like scriptures say fire is cold but we perceive fire is hot), only Pratyaksha is more authoritative according to ...
Spark Sunshine's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
643 views

On what basis do Hindu philosophies say Sabda Pramana is infallible?

Almost all Hindu Philosophies accept at least three Pramanas: Pratyaksha or direct sense perception, Anumana or Inference and doubting, Sabda or word testimony. Now the common argument in many ...
Spark Sunshine's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
288 views

Did Sayanacharya believe in the authority of Ithihas and Puranas?

As you might be knowing, Sayana is one of the classical commentator on Vedas. My question is what was his opinion on the authority of Ithihas and Puranas? Did he believe in them?
Spark Sunshine's user avatar
12 votes
1 answer
591 views

What is Anumana Pramana to be precise?

What exactly is Anumana Pramana? Guessing the past happenings with the available evidence also come under Anumana Pramana? And how does it differ from Artapatti Pramana?
Spark Sunshine's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
408 views

Are Pramanas mentioned in the Vedas?

There are 10 Pramanas. Among those, majority of orthodox schools of Hinduism accept at least 3 Pramanas VIZ; Pratyaksha, Anumana and Sabda. Now, do these Pramanas mentioned in the Vedas(Both Karma and ...
Spark Sunshine's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
151 views

What is the proof that I will not suffer after attaining Moksha / liberation? [duplicate]

After attaining Moksha there is no suffering. But how long I can be in a state of Moksha? What is the proof that I will not suffer ever after attaining liberation?
Dheeraj Verma's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
599 views

How can agama be treated as shruti?

Agamas as shruti : Hindpedia says Sruti, the eternal word, is said to be of two forms – Nigama (Veda) and Agama Also, Sri Vaishnava Acharya Yamunacharya (who was Ramanujacharya's guru's guru) composed ...
zaxebo1's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
264 views

if there is difference of opinion between purana and gita and dharmashashtras(like: manusmriti etc), which will take more precedence?

if there is difference of opinion between purana and bhagvad gita and dharmashashtras(like: manusmriti etc), and they are interpreting vedas in their own manner to support their views. Now, then ...
zaxebo1's user avatar
  • 4,808
5 votes
2 answers
257 views

If I consider only Isha Upanishad as infallible canonical pramana, will I be (scripturally) considered a valid Hindu/Sanatani?

Isha upanishad is only text which is samhita and upanishad both Isha upanishad is considered the first even among the principal upanishads Now, If I decide to consider only Isha upanishad as the ...
zaxebo1's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is there any verse or historical evidence suggesting that manusmriti is more authoritative than other smritis?

1) Among Dharmasmritis(Manusmriti, Naradasmriti , Parashara Smriti,Yajnavalkya Smrti ... etc) , is there any verse or historical evidence which suggests that manusmriti is more authoritative/followed ...
zaxebo1's user avatar
  • 4,808
6 votes
2 answers
653 views

Reference for "Dayanand Saraswati rejected Brahmanas (of Vedas) and Aranyakas (of Vedas) and Upanishads"

Observation 1 Book "Discovering the Rigveda" By Geerpuram Nadadur Srinivasa Raghavan, Pg 73 says Dayanand Saraswati rejected Brahmanas (of Vedas) and Aranyakas (of Vedas) as wild imaginations." ...
zaxebo1's user avatar
  • 4,808
7 votes
4 answers
3k views

Is it permissible to deny the authority of Manusmriti?

Is it permissible to deny the authority of Manusmriti considering that all the four major schools of Hinduism(Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smarta tradition) only consider Vedas and Upanishads ...
Ajay Varma's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
420 views

in which sect of hinduism manusmriti is canonical text?

Vedanta canonical text is prasthantrayi consisting of Upanishads,Gita , Brahma Sutra Sri vidya authoritative/canonical scriptures are Jyanarnava Tantra, Vamakeswara Tantram, Sri Krama, Dkashinamurty ...
zaxebo1's user avatar
  • 4,808
7 votes
1 answer
425 views

Vaisheshik does not consider Shabda as pramana, then how they hold veda as valid and reliable source for knowledge

1) Vaiśeṣika epistemology considered only "pratyakṣa" (perception) and "anumāna" (inference) as reliable means of valid knowledge reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaisheshika#Epistemology ...
zaxebo1's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
444 views

What is Pratyaksha PramANa to be precise?

Can anyone tell what is pratyaksha pramANa? What does it include? Only 5 sense organs or even intellect or mind also? Can apprehension power be termed as Direct Perception aka Pratyaksha pramANa?
ㅤㅤㅤㅤㅤ's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
639 views

What does Vishishtadvaita Vedanta say about hallucinations?

To begin with first, illusions and hallucinations are different. An illusion is a: a distortion of the senses, revealing how the brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation. ...
Ikshvaku's user avatar
  • 22.2k
3 votes
1 answer
885 views

Why are only 3 pramanas accepted in Vishishtadvaita?

The 3 pramanas accepted in Vishishtadvaita philosophy are Pratyaksha, Anumana, and Shabda. How come the others like Upamana (Comparison), Arthapatti (Necssary Assumption), Anupalabdhi (Non-...
Ikshvaku's user avatar
  • 22.2k
5 votes
1 answer
916 views

If there is a conflict between Pratyaksha pramana and Sruti, which one takes precedence according to Vishishtadvaita Vedanta?

Most schools of Vedanta accept only 3 sources of right knowledge (or pramana): Pratyaksha (empiricism/observation), Anumana (inference/reasoning), and Shabda (scriptures). According to Vedanta: ...
Ikshvaku's user avatar
  • 22.2k
4 votes
0 answers
467 views

Who is the earliest Advaitin to mention six Pramanas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
221 views

Did Vyasa and Baudhayana believe in 10 Pramanas and 8 Pramanas respectively?

The Manimekalai is a 6th century Tamil epic poem composed by the Buddhist poet Chithalai Chathanar. It talks about philosophy a lot, which given its early date means that it gives a rare glimpse into ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
1k views

Who believes in 10 Pramanas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
781 views

Do all Vedantic philosophies agree on the number of Pramanas?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
508 views

Who agrees with Adi Shankaracharya on Smriti having no authority over the existence of objects?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
Keshav Srinivasan's user avatar
33 votes
9 answers
7k views

Does Science contradict Hinduism? How to deal with scientific discoveries that don't line up with Vedas?

I would like to know if Hinduism and science contradict each other. This is an issue that arises in many religions, the most prominent example being Christianity and its disagreement with evolution. ...
Akshay's user avatar
  • 1,880
8 votes
1 answer
401 views

Are there any scriptures in Hinduism equivalent to the Vedas?

The Vedas are in sanskrit. Are there any scriptures which are considered equivalent(i.e as respected) as the Vedas? They do not necessarily have to be in sanskrit. In Tamil, the Divya Prabandham is ...
Bharat's user avatar
  • 6,920
9 votes
4 answers
744 views

How accepted are the Smritis?

According to Wikipedia there are two main types of scriptures, the four Vedas (which are seen as eternal), and the Smritis (which are seen as revealed). I was wondering what the current Hindu thought ...
Juan Sebastian Lozano's user avatar