Questions tagged [upanishads]

The last part of the Vedas, consisting of dialogues between teachers and students clarifying the philosophical teachings of the Vedas.

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How does Arya Samaj intepret Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 2.3.1?

As some of you must be knowing, Arya Samaj is a Hindu organisation that rejects the notion of idol worship and teaches God is only formless. This is due to the controversial verses in the Yajurveda ...
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How does Advaita interpret the devatas to the Isha Upanishad mantras?

Advaita is a non dual philosophy which says there is no distinction between Jivatma and Paramatma (Brahman). There is only one soul which is Brahman. In the Isha Upanishad or Ishavasyopanishad which ...
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Does the Vishishtadvaita school accept the Kaivalyopanishat? What is its status?

The Kaivalyopanishat reads like a Shiva-specific one with 'Uma sahayam parameshwaram ....' and also at the end specifies Sri Rudram as the means to attain to the goal. Is this acceptable to Vaishnavas ...
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Which upanishad contains the laxmi gayatri mantra? [duplicate]

Gayatri mantra which is chanted at the end of Sri sukta, which upanishad or Veda contains it? The Mantra is this: ॐ म॒हा॒दे॒व्यै च॑ वि॒द्महे॑ विष्णुप॒त्नी च॑ धीमहि । तन्नो॑ लक्ष्मीः प्रचो॒दया॓त् ...
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What is the Vedic/Puranik meaning of 'Graha' and 'Nakshatra'

There has two confusing word in Vedas, Puranas, Upanishads etc. These are 'Graha' and 'Nakshatra'. In Vedas Surya(Sun) and Soma/Chandra(Moon) is Graha(planet). But we know that Sun and Moon are not ...
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Is Lord Ganesha considered same as the ultimate truth and reality (Brahman)?

Many Texts associate OM with cosmic creation and that OM is everything. Ganesha is associated with OM and hence known as oṃkārasvarūpa (Aum is his form). The Ganapati Atharvashirsa states that Lord ...
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If one simply needs to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead,then why many people dedicate their lives in the studying of the Vedas?

Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad (3.2.3) Our relationship with the Supreme Lord is never advanced by simple study of the Vedas. There are many Māyāvādī sannyāsīs fully engaged in studying the Vedas, Vedānta-sūtra ...
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What is keelakam in Mantra Nyasa

Usually most (or all) rig veda samhita mantras have a Rishi, Chanda and Devata. When it comes to Upanishads, I find some mantras to also have Beejam, Shakti and Keelakam. Can someone explain me what ...
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What is the best way to start learning the Upanishads for beginners and in what order? [duplicate]

Is there any good and authentic source where English version of the Upanishads are available.
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What classes of scripture are claimed to be apaurusheya?

It is well known that Vedas are claimed to be apaurusheya or not of human origin. Hindu scripture has been continuously produced since the Veda-Samhitas – Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads, Itihasas, ...
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Which verses in Vedas and Upanishads can be used to prove that Brahman is sagunam?

We know that most Vaishnava sects believe in Saguna Brahman. Are there pramanas from the Brahma Sutras, Upanishads or the srutis themselves which show that Brahman has anantkalyangunams? What will be ...
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Is Adi Shankaracharya's Kena Upanishad Vakya Bhashya available in English?

Generally the Advaita philosopher Adi Shankaracharya has only given one Bhashya or commentary for each of the Mukhya or primary Upanishads. But in the case of the Kena Upanishad, he composed two ...
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Is the Madhyandina Shakha of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad available in English?

As I discuss in this answer, each of the four Vedas consists of four parts: Samhitas, which consist of mantras addressed to the Devas; Brahmanas, which consist of instructions for public Yagnas; ...
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Vedas and their philosophy

As per my reading from Wikipedia, the mukhya Upanishads discuss the philosophy of vedas. The seeds of advaita and vishishtadvaita philosophies are found in these upanishads as per my limited readings. ...
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Sectarian Upanishads - Sruti or Smriti?

I know that Vedas are Sruti, including its embedded texts - Samhitas, Aranyakas, Brahmanas and Upanishads. And also that each Upanishad is linked to each Veda. Tell me, if Upanishads are Sruti, then ...
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A question on chronology of Muktika Canon

I have read Upanishads are 108 , and in the Muktika Canon , Sri Ramchandra enumerates their name to Hanuman when Hanuman asked him the way to salvation. As far as my knowledge, Upanishads were ...
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Why did the ancient Indians name Mars as “Angaraka”?

The ancient Indians (Vedic) named Mars as Angaraka which means Son of the Earth. Is there any mention of the "Angaraka" in the Vedas?
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What is the actual definition for karma in Hinduism? [duplicate]

Karma as in all actions of a person. Actions of our own thoughts and physical or body. Just queries what could be the actual meaning of karma according to Hinduism.
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Why certain impurities (related to birth/death) are considered to be as ever lasting in a Sannyasi's life?

The Maitreya Upanishad, which is regarded as one of the Sannyasa Upanishads, gives two interesting reasons as to why a Sannyasi can not perform Sandhya worship. Among which,one reason is related to ...
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Are the 3 gunas mentioned in the Vedas?

Are the 3 gunas, namely, sattva, rajas, tamas mentioned in the Vedas? I know they are mentioned throughout the Smrtis, notably the Puranas, Bhagavad Gita, and the Sankhya Smriti. In fact, the 3 gunas ...
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Does there exist a complete English translation of Narasimha Tapaniya Upanishad?

Is there a complete English translation of the Narasimha Tapaniya Upanishad available online?
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Is Surdarshan Chakra mentioned In Vedic literature?

The Surdarshan Chakra is Lord vishnu's weapon mentioned in many puranas and in Itihasas. But is there any reference of Surdarshana Chakra in Vedic literature (that is Vedas,Upanishads,Brahmans).the ...
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Why is the Karma Kand portion of the Vedas larger than the Jnana Kand?

Almost all Acharyas divide the Vedas into two parts: Karma Kand (as explained by the Purva Mimamsa sutras) and the Jnana Kand (Uttara Mimamsa sutras, aka Brahma Sutras). The Samhitas and Brahmanas ...
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How come Ramanujacharya's Sri Bhashya does not mention Islam?

Chapter 2 of Ramanujacharya's Sri Bhashya, which is his commentary on the Brahma Sutars, attempts to refute all other opposing philosophical schools that don't adhere to Vishishtadvaita Vedanta, such ...
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What's the difference between Veda, Purana, upanishad, Smritis, Granth?

All these were written by great sages. When one sage writes something great then how his creation is being categorized among them? Means, if he writes something then after completion, how is it ...
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Is amrita or legend of samudra manthan mentioned in Vedic scriptures?

The legend of samudra manthan and amrita is mentioned in itihasa, puranas but the legend of samudra manthan mentioned in verses of vedas, Upanishads or brahmanas or is the drink of immortality amrita ...
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According Advaita philosophy, can the formless Absolute Brahman see, speak, hear and smell? [duplicate]

In the Kena Upanishad following is said about the Absolute Brahman(not Atma...if Atma and Brahman are same then probably I have asked this question before. But in my opinion Absolute Brahman is a ...
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What all Hindu scriptures advocate The Golden Rule? And what is the oldest Hindu scripture to advocate it?

According to Wikipedia, The Golden Rule, treat others as you treat yourself, is common to most world religions. Here are a couple of references from Hindu scripture: One should never do that to ...
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Which Upanishadic verse says that the very object of pleasure/beauty will turn into a object of pain or frustration?

I remember reading in some book related to Upanishad, probably one by Swami Sivananda of Rishkesh a quote something to the effect of this : Whichever is the object/source of pleasure today, will turn ...
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According to Hinduism, who am I?

I have spent good time understanding what is Atma or Self. Scriptures say Self is in every being and every being is in Self. However if someone asks me "Who am I?" then what should be my response? ...
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Is every being a God?

According to Kaivalya Upanishad: He(Supreme Brahman) alone is all that was, and all that will be, the Eternal. Knowing Him, one transcends death. There is no other way to freedom. We know ...
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Can Atma be good or bad?

In this extra-ordinary simile from Katha Upanishad ,explains the concept of Atman very well: Know the âtman as the lord of the chariot, the body as only the chariot, know also intelligence as ...
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What scriptures describe sage Vamadeva attaining Moksha?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school. But there are five other Astika or orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy: Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya,...
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Which scripture contains the story of Mahidasa Aitareya?

There is one famous story of Mahidasa Aitareya in upanishad/purana. Which scripture described about him and his life? I suppose it is in Aitariya aranyaka but I am looking for exact reference. ...
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What is the difference between Eswaran and Sivaperuman?

Upanishads says Easwaran is our god and he has no shape and can't feel it on your senses , we pray lord shiva is our first and almost god,he has shapes and lingam, did lord Shiva is creation of ...
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Examples of human sacrifice in Hindu scripture

Are there any incidents of human sacrifice in Hindu scripture? If there are none, are there any examples where a human being was initially prepared to be sacrificed but later avoided due to some or ...
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What does hinduism say about oneness of god? [duplicate]

What does Hinduism say about oneness of god and imagelessness of god? Doesn't it say in the vedas? From Brahmasutra: Ekam Brahm, dvitiya naste neh na naste kinchan Meaning: there is no ...
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How do the Vedas describe Moksha?

It is commonly seen that in many Vedanta texts and discourses we hear of moksha. I have also asked a related question here. I want to know how does the Vedas describe moksha? Are there any ...
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Are Upanishad's really parts of the Vedas?

While the hymns of the Vedas emphasize rituals and the Brahmanas serve as a liturgical manual for those Vedic rituals, the spirit of the Upanishads is inherently opposed to ritual. The older ...
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What are the Vedas technically? How can Upanishads be called Vedas when some parts are neither revelations nor hymns dedicated to any specific deity?

It is believed that the Vedas are the revelations from the Almighty to the seers in exalted states of consciousness. Further, it is also believed that the Vedas are authorless. Keeping these ...
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Why pain and suffering? [duplicate]

We see a lot of conflicts, accidents, diseases, poverty, pain and suffering around us in our day to day life. I often wonder why god created so much misery and so little goodness. What is His plan ...
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What kind of scripture is Vyasa's BrahmaSutras technically?

From Kamakoti.org In the Brahmasutra, on which there are commentaries according to the various philosophical schools, Vyasa presents in an extremely terse form the substance of the ten (...
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Who agrees with Kumarila Bhatta that the Chandogya Upanishad refers to magical powers?

As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which bases its tenets on the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by the sage Vyasa ...
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Why do sanyasa scriptures degrade women?

I found many anti-women verses in "so called" Sanyasa-upanishads. I am disappointed to see such hatred and prejudice towards women. Women are compared with objects, animals and what not ! This is ...
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How does Advaita explain analogy of two birds on the tree(body)?

A well known analogy of two birds seating on the tree appears in Mundaka Upanishad.(Similar verse also appears in Svetâsvatara Upanishad) Two birds, inseparable friends, cling to the same tree. ...
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Why did Adi Sankaracharya compare the color of Ishwara's eyes to that of monkey's nates?

While commenting on the verse "tasya yatha kapyasam pundarikamevamakshini" in his bhashya on the Chandogya Upanishad, Shankara describes the eyes of Ishwara as: eyes of that golden Purusha are like ...
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Where are the Sanskrit texts of Upanishads referred by Dara Shikoh?

Wikipedia states : Dara Shikoh subsequently developed a friendship with the seventh Sikh Guru, Guru Har Rai. Dara Shikoh devoted much effort towards finding a common mystical language between ...
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Is Muktika Upanishad genuine?

How can Muktika be genuine when it lists later day upanishads like Kali santarana ? How can it list vedas which were revealed later, eg: Shukla yajur veda releaved during the end of Dwapara yuga ...
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Does the Atharvasiras derives this mantra from YajurVeda or quotes from other Veda?

Atharvasiras Upanishad is one of the ancient Upanishad and perhaps the only Upanishad which is quoted in DharmaShastras (like Gautama 19.12, Vasistha 22.9 etc.. ) It is a part of AtharvaVeda. The ...
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What is Unmanifest & what is Person? And what's the difference?

Katha Upanishad Valli 3 says such. 7. Higher than the senses is the mind; Higher than the mind is the essence; Higher than the essence is the immense self; Higher than the immense is the ...