Yes Rama had killed Shambhuka because he was performing ascetic penance to become God in the same human body of his and was desirous of attaining celestial powers which could have been risk for Gods. It is mentioned in Uttara Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana.
From Valmiki Ramayana, Uttara Kanda, Chapter 75-76, When Rama asked him why he is performing such ascetic ...
This edition of the Mahabharata, translated by K M Ganguly, contradicts the above citation.
The Yaksha asked,--'By what, O king, birth, behaviour, study, or learning doth a person become a Brahmana? Tell us with certitude!' Yudhishthira answered,-'Listen, O Yaksha! It is neither birth, nor study, nor learning, that is the cause of Brahmanahood, without ...
That verse doesn't belong to the Bhagavad-gītā but is taken from the Aśvamedha Parva of the Southern Recension of the Mahābhārata (Kumbakonam Edition):
Ashvamedhikaparva - adhyAya 116
14.116. adhyAyaH 116
Mahabharata - Ashvamedhika Parva - Chapter Topics
kR^iShNena yudhiShThiraMprati bhakagavadbhaktisaushIlyAdyabhAve brAhmaNAnAmapi ...
To answer your first question, here's the full story from Viṣṇu Parva of Harivaṃśa. According to this, Kṛṣṇa and Yādavas did occupy an area called Dvāravatī/Dvārakā where Ekalavya already resided and built a city there.
After some time, in the assembly of the Yadus, Pundarikaksha spoke excellent words that ...
I have no idea about the Gowdas.
As regards the Shettys, they belong to the Vaishya Varna as per the Chaturvarna system.
The word Shetty is derived from from the Sanskrit word Shresthin (श्रेष्ठिन्), the same source gives rise to Seth (सेठ) of North india and Chettiar (செட்டியார்) of Tamil Nadu. They were traditionally merchants and engaged in the money ...
The caste stastem prescribed in scriptures is based on both birth and karma. But How? Let me quote a passage from Mahabharat.
The illustrious one said, 'The status of a Brahmana, O goddess, is exceedingly difficult to attain. O auspicious lady, one becomes a Brahmana through original creation or birth. After the same manner the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and ...
The questions are:
Were chaturashram (4 stages of life) applicable for all the 4 castes (Brahmin, Vaishya, Kshatriya, Shudra)?
Did lower castes really get the chance to observe bramhacharya, i.e. to be educated?
Yes, it is applicable to the people of all varnas.
The four ashramas are: Brahmacharya (student), Grihastha (householder), Vanaprastha (retired)...
Earliest mention of 4 classes of humans was made in Purusha Sukta from Rig Veda X.90.12.
The Brahman was his mouth, of both his arms was the Rājanya made. His
thighs became the Vaiśya, from his feet the Śūdra was produced.
We have to remember that this division was based on guna and karma , but not based on birth based.
This was reiterated by Sri ...
Well, Vidura who is considered to be a Shudra, is considered an incarnation of Yama:
And there was a Rishi of the name of Animandavya of great fame. And he was conversant with the interpretations of the Vedas, was illustrious, gifted with great energy, and of great reputation. And, accused of theft, though innocent, the old Rishi was impaled. He ...
Both Uvata and Mahidhara (who lived prior to Sayana), who have written commentaries on the Shukla Yajur Veda, explain this verse plainly. In other words, they take the meaning at face value.
Uvata: यथेमाम् । यथा इमां वाचं कल्याणीं अनुद्वेजिनीम् । दीयतां भुज्यतामित्येवमादिकाम् । आवदानि जनेभ्योऽर्थाय । के ते जना इत्यत आह । ब्रह्मराजन्याभ्यां ब्राह्मणाय रा...
The property of Brahma tirtha : bestowing Brahman-hood after a holy bath has been mentioned in other scriptures such as Narada Purana.
In a conversation between Vasu and Mohini, Vasu tells about that property of Brahma tirtha
By taking a holy dip in the Brahma Tirtha a man obtains Brahmana-hood.
This is the greatest spot of Brahma. By going there none ...
It is Arjuna who worries about varna shankara. Krishna ignores Arjuna's remark. Instead he talks of Varna being based on karma and guna.
According to the aptitudes resulting from the dispositions of Nature
(gunas) and works (karma), the social order of fourfold division has
been created by Me. Though I am their originator, know me to be an
agent but ...
The question is specifically asking for counter arguments within scriptures that preaches against following a birth based system.
The strongest proof is provided in Manusmriti
3.109 A Brāhmaṇa should not advertise his family and Gotra for the purpose of obtaining a meal. Bragging about these, for the purpose of obtaining a meal, he comes to be called a “...
Varnas were not separated from creation. They later separated by the Karma of people.
Bhrigu said, 'There is really no distinction between the different orders. The whole world at first consisted of Brahmanas. Created (equal) by Brahman, men have, in consequence of their acts, become distributed into different orders. They that became fond of indulging in ...
Rg Veda 10.90.12 is mostly misrepresented in colonial translations as the source of the scriptural authority for the "caste system", because the analogy for Purusha is a "man, standing", hence the hierarchy. But what really does the verse say?
Here is the colonial translation:
At the top of the hierarchy were the Brahmins who were mainly teachers and ...
varNa is the philosophical category according to the mode of operation (karma). A detailed analysis of the concept of varNa in Veda & Upanishad is discussed here:
These categories exist all over the world. Until the advent of the industrial age and ...
The short answer to your question: in the body.
Mahabharatha, Aswamedha parva (40.11)
“Tamas is found in great measure in the sudra, rajas in the
Kshatriya, sattva in Brahmin”
Ramanuja’s commentary on Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 18.41.-47 states
The deeds of the past determine the present dispositions of men. These
dispositions bring about the ...
Sometimes I feel like all the scriptures are written by Shudras and are biased toward Shudras.
If this is true, how did verses like these end up in Manusmṛti?
Discourse IX - Duties of the King (concluded)
Section XLI - The Treatment of Brāhmaṇas
Even when fallen in the deepest distress, the king shall not provoke
the Brāhmaṇas; for if ...
As per Gita 18.67
इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन |
न चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति || 67||
idaṁ te nātapaskyāya nābhaktāya kadāchana
na chāśhuśhruṣhave vāchyaṁ na cha >māṁ yo ‘bhyasūtayi
This roughly translates to
This instruction should never be explained to those who are not austere or to those who are not devoted. It should also not be ...