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21

Q. I hear these terms Dvaita, Advaita, Vishistdvaita, Shuddhadvaita, and may be any other XYZdvaita, etc in most of the questions but I am not very sure what do they refer to. There are six Darshan (षडदर्शन) i.e philosophy in Hinduism which are Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta. Among these six schools, Vedanta(वेदांत) is very popular ...


11

You quoted from the Mahabharata this passage of text: Meanwhile, the righteous-souled Suka, who had entered the elements, had become their soul and acquired omnipresence, answered his sire by uttering the monosyllable Bho in the form of an echo. At this, the entire universe of mobile and immobile creatures, uttering the monosyllable Bho, echoed the answer ...


11

Because Swami Vivekananda considered them as three steps in Spiritual progress. First step is Dvaita (dualism), second step VisistAdvaita (qualified non-dualism) and third step is Advaita (non-dualism) (final state of experience). He also said all three complement each other but do not oppose. Swami Vivekananda says the following in Vedanta Philosophy - ...


10

It is because they cite a specific verse from garuDa purANa which says maNiman demon reincarnated in kali yuga. As per them the incarnation of vaayu in dwapara yuga was Bheem sena and the incarnation in kali yuga is Madwa (Ananda teertha) who came to defeat the demon maniman in kaliyuga who was previously destroyed in dwapara by bheem sena. The text maNi ...


7

Here's how the Dvaita philosopher Madhvacharya renders the portion you put in bold, in this excerpt from his commentary on the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad: But he worships any other god (than Brahman), he does not know. Similarly when one worships some other devata as Ever-present, Ever-full, Ever-existing knowledge (thinking that Brahman is devoid of ...


6

Dvaitadvaita gives the same explanation of Nirguna that Visistadvaita and Achintya Bhedabheda give. Here's what Roma Bose says in this excerpt from her book "Doctrines of Nimbarka and his Followers": It is clear from the above that Brahman is essentially possessed of attributes. On the one hand, he possesses an infinite number of auspicious qualities, .....


6

You're talking about the well known "Problem of Evil" in Western Philosophy. This is discussed in detail in the Vedanta Sutras, in particular in the sutra वैषम्यनैर्घृण्ये न, सापेक्षत्वात्, तथा हि दर्शयति. The basic position is that it is not possible to blame God for evil on account of partiality or cruelty because He is an impartial observer and ...


6

Partial Answer (for one Mahavakya Tat Tvam Asi) Note: I recommend going through overview of the similarity and difference between Vedanta philosophies. The debate for interpretation is due to the difference in the doctrine of Vedantic philosophies viz. Advaita, Vishithadvaita, Dvaita etc. for the relationship between Brahman and Jiva. Tat Tvam Asi This ...


5

Followers of Madhvacharya, the chief exponent of Dvaita, do not believe in Moksha as conventionally understood by other schools, where the jivatma acheives unity with paramatma. In Madhva's view, the jivatma will always remain distinct from paramatma; he believed that Mukti or salvation involved the Vishnu's elevation of the jivatma to an exalted state ...


5

Brahman is described as ekamevadvitiyam, one only without a second. The word monism, as said in my comment, is often used interchangeably in common parlance with non-dualism (or advaita (not two)), but strictly speaking it is referred to as non-dualism, not monism. The Chandogya Upanishad (VI. ii. 1.) says (Swami Gambhirananda translator): 'O good ...


5

Dvaita commentaries are available at Nagesh Sonde's website Sri Madhvacharya's Bhasya on Upanishads: Isha Upanishad Chhandogya Upanishad Katha Upanishad Kena Upanishad Mandukya Upanishad Mundaka Upanishad Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Taittariya Upanishad Prashna Upanishad It is difficult to find and get English translation of Ranga Ramanujacharya's (or ...


5

Dvaita interprets that unmanifest abode does refer to either of following: Supreme Lord Himself Resplendent form of the Supreme Lord According to Madhvacharya's Bhashya on Bhagavadgita: Sanskrit Bhashya: avyakto bhagavānyaṃ prāpya na nivartante itimāmupetya [8।15] ityasya parāmarśāt।avyaktaṃ paramaṃ viṣṇuṃ iti prayogācca gāruḍe। dhāma svarūpaṃ ...


4

Yes, Vidyaranya (Advaitin Scholar and brother of famous Sayanacharya) was defeated by Akshobhya Tirtha (Dwaita Scholar) in famous debate moderated by Vedanta Deshikacharya (Sri Vaishnava scholar founder of Vadakalai sect). In the year 1336 AD., Sri Akshobhya Tirtha had a scholarly disputation with Sri Vidyaranya on the interpretation of the "Tatvam-asi" ("...


4

I just happened to see this question, posted 10 months back. If you are still searching for an answer, here's an explanation from dvaitin: The word 'आत्मा' has multiple meanings: self, Brahman, mind, body across the scriptures, within Gita itself. For example in gita 6.36 (vashyAtmanA), Shankara himself interprets AtmA as 'manas'. The brahmasutra 1.3.1, ...


4

Not sure if this is what you're looking for but this research paper - THEORY OF CAUSATION IN VEDANTA PHILOSOPHY mentions the following on page 17-18: Pratibimbavada: Advaita philosophy maintains the relation of reflection (Pratibimba) between the jiva and Brahman. The reflection of infinite consciousness in the mirror of Avidya is jiva. In the commentary ...


4

I noticed that you asked many questions about what Dvaita teaches. You should know that Dvaita is just one specific system of the philosophy of Vedanta promulgated by the Madhva (Madhvacarya or Anandatirtha) who was the leader of one Vaishnava tradition (sampradaya) in the 13th century. See the Wikipedia article on Madhvacharya. However if you are ...


4

Yes. Saura Purana chapters 38 to 40 contain prophecy of the birth of Madhvacharya and passages which attack Madhvacharya and his philosophy. These chapters glorify Advaita and Shiva. There are frequent usage of the six darshanas viz Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta. There is even glorification of Advaita. Not only that, there is ...


4

The dvaita interpretation of this verse is that it reflects the highest meditative state of a devotee, who is in deep love and knowledge of Brahman as it comes very close and intimate with Brahman. The statement "I am Brahman" is made because the devotee thinks of nothing but Brahman. vijayadhvajatIrtha was a later dvaita commentator on the ...


4

Swami Sivananda in his Introduction to Bhagavad-Gita says : In one place in the Gita, Lord Krishna praises Karma Yoga: “The Yoga of action is superior to the renunciation of action”—V.2. In another place He praises Raja Yoga: “The Yogi is thought to be superior to the ascetics and even superior to men of knowledge; he is also superior to men of action. ...


3

Ramanujacharya provides many quotes from the Vedas in this section of the Jijnasa Adhikarana of the Sri Bhashya to demonstrate that the supreme Brahman is Saguna, not Nirguna: We now turn to the assertion that certain scriptural texts, as e.g. 'Being only was this in the beginning,' are meant to teach that there truly exists only one homogeneous substance, ...


3

"Where one sees nothing else, hears nothing else, understands nothing else, that is the greatest (Infinite, nirguna). Where one sees something else, hears something else, understands something else, that is the little (finite, saguna). The greatest is immortal; the little is mortal." (Chandogya Upanishad 7-24-1) "It is neither coarse nor fine, neither ...


3

I'd like to start by pointing out that it's not his samadhi but the vrindavana which is present in Mantralaya. Sri Raghavendra Swami is considered to be the 4th incarnation of Sankukarna, who was an attendant of Lord Brahma. He was designated with the task of providing Lord Brahma with the articles needed for daily worship. From the book, Sri Raghavendra ...


3

Here is how the Dvaita philosopher Madhvacharya interprets various parts of the Brahma Sutras which other commentators interpret as saying that Brahman rather than Prakriti is the material cause of the Universe: Most commentators interpret Adhyaya 1 Pada 1 Sutra 5 as rejecting the view that Prakriti is the material cause of the Universe spoken of as Brahman ...


3

Saying that Brahman is only "saguNa" is a bit "ekadeshIya" i.e. "incomplete" because Brahman's saguNatva is only an aspect of it. That's why Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.3.1 says: द्वे वाव ब्रह्मणो रूपे मूर्तं चैवामूर्तं च मर्त्यं चामृतं च स्थितं च यच्च सच्च त्यच्च । There are indeed two forms of Brahman, physical & ...


3

No matter, whether one is Vaishnava or Shaiva or whatever. Vedas clearly say "ekamevAdvitIyam". There is only one Brahman. It does not make sense even to think "Which Brahman should we worship - Saguna or NirguNa?". There are no two Brahmans. If people get confused with various modes of worship, let them ask a question - "Should we ...


3

Madhvacharya considers Jivas and God as eternally different. Thus an Advaita style moksha is not possible. (In fact Dvaitins regard the Advaita Moksha as destruction of the Jiva and thus to be avoided.) Madhvacharya prefers Bimba-pratibimba (ray and its reflection) relation between God and Jiva, where God is the original ray and the Jiva is the reflection. ...


3

Yes, it is available on archive.org in Kannada Language in multiple links. 1.Kaliyuga Kalpataru 2. ಕಲಿಯುಗ ಕಲ್ಪತರು


3

Once a person asked Ramana Maharishi " How can I become qualified for SELF enquiry?" to which Ramana Maharishi said "Did you just now utter the word 'I'? Then you are qualified." Truth is your birthright. For going to a Guru we need to have Sadhna chatushtaya but not for reading/knowing/ enquiring.


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