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Swami Sivananda in his Introduction to Bhagavad-Gita says : In one place in the Gita, Lord Krishna praises Karma Yoga: “The Yoga of action is superior to the renunciation of action”—V.2. In another place He praises Raja Yoga: “The Yogi is thought to be superior to the ascetics and even superior to men of knowledge; he is also superior to men of action. ...


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The dvaita interpretation of this verse is that it reflects the highest meditative state of a devotee, who is in deep love and knowledge of Brahman as it comes very close and intimate with Brahman. The statement "I am Brahman" is made because the devotee thinks of nothing but Brahman. vijayadhvajatIrtha was a later dvaita commentator on the ...


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Kashmir Shaivism (KS) rejects the Advaita Vedānta (AV) theory of eternal and independent ignorance. In Kashmir Shaivism, avidyā and māyā (illusion), are Śakti, They also believe in infinite souls and liberation. But liberation is not by knowledge alone as there are two ajnana in Kashmir Shaivism. In Kashmir Shaivism, bondage is real and maya is also real. ...


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Saying that Brahman is only "saguNa" is a bit "ekadeshIya" i.e. "incomplete" because Brahman's saguNatva is only an aspect of it. That's why Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.3.1 says: द्वे वाव ब्रह्मणो रूपे मूर्तं चैवामूर्तं च मर्त्यं चामृतं च स्थितं च यच्च सच्च त्यच्च । There are indeed two forms of Brahman, physical & ...


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No matter, whether one is Vaishnava or Shaiva or whatever. Vedas clearly say "ekamevAdvitIyam". There is only one Brahman. It does not make sense even to think "Which Brahman should we worship - Saguna or NirguNa?". There are no two Brahmans. If people get confused with various modes of worship, let them ask a question - "Should we ...


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What are the verse in the Vedas and upanishades that support dualistic philosophy of dvaita vedanta? The most interesting thing is how Madhvacharya interprets the following verse from the Chandogya Upanishad: 6.8.7 - स आत्मातत्त्वमसि sa AtmAtattvamasi Depending on how you split the word, it can be: sa AtmA tat tvam asi (You are that self) Or sa AtmA ...


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The Abhinava Anyatha Khyati is about illusory experience. Let me discuss Madhva’s theory. Abhinava Anyatha Khyati This brings us to the problem of illusory experiences. All Indian systems of philosophy, including that of the Buddhists and Jains, have their theory of illusions, which is technically called Khyati-vada. We shall consider here only those that ...


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The basic tenet of advaita is ब्रह्म सत्यं जगन्मिथ्या जीवो ब्रहैव नापरः - ब्रह्म ज्ञानावलीमाला - २० Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya Jivo Brahmaiva Na Aparah" - Brahma Jnanavali mala - 20 The falsity of the world is argued by one sect of Buddhism, where nothing is real. Advaita does not agree with the falsity of the world Satya (सत्य)= one that is present at ...


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I will post conversations from Chaitanya Charitamrita(CC). CC describes it from verse Madhya 9.245, when Sri Chaitanya arrives in Udupi to visit the famous temple of Krishna. He then has a discussion with Madhavacharya Tradition Acharyas as follows. Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “I do not know very well the aim of life and how to achieve it. Please tell Me of ...


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You can download PDF of Madhvācārya's commentary on Ṛgveda http://www.tatvavada.org/eng/works/pdf/rgb.pdf


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No English translation is available. The complete book is available in sringeri math in sanskrit in two volumes. Though it is not related to your question, some background is necessary for the book, as your statement that Laghu Chandrika is a refutation to tarangani is not strictly correct. It not only includes refutation of the Tarangini of Ramatirtha and ...


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Short answer: The later advaitins had to answer the critics of the school. The main critic was against the concept of avidya and adhyasa. Madhusudhana Saravasti and others introduced new terms and provided much more details and interpretations. There was NO deviation from Shankara’s teaching but many points not explained in detail had to be explained. These ...


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My aim here is to answer your question in the comment. Has advaita refuted the khyati of various schools? Advaita has extensively discussed Anirvachniya-khyati and contrasted it with other khyati. Please see the first chapter of panchadasi entitled superimposition. A more detailed discussion on this is found in the book methods of knowledge of ...


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It is not heaven, but Vaikunta (the heavenly abode of Lord Vishnu), which is eternal and above the swarga lokas. According to Madhva's Dvaita philosophy, if the soul attains moksha, it reaches Vaikunta and stays there eternally. Madhava's Dvaita philosophy (and also pushimarga?) allows for eternal hell also. Some souls are eternally doomed and can never ...


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There are no upadhis in Brahman. Upadhis appear to create division because of avidya. Space inside pot and outside pot is relative to where you stand. Further, there is no difference in space at any level even if there is a pot. It is only your sensory perception or avidya that induces the division. Panchadasi-2.20 and 21. There are three bhedas: svagata ...


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Three types of meanings are typically accepted for Sanskrit words. Here is a discussion of the three types of meanings by Sri Satyanarayana Das Babaji in his commentary on Śrī Jīva Goswami's Bhagavat Sandarbha, Anuccheda 98: “All literature, including the Veda, is composed of words. Every Sanskrit word (pada) has a meaning (artha), and there is a relation ...


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I would like to write most probable refutation Buddhist doctrine by Vaishnavaism. Buddhists teach, that there are two types of arising (samudaya), namely external and internal. The external arising refers to things such as the earth, rivers, oceans and so on. These are made of four kinds of minute particles (paramāṇus) namely earthly, watery, fiery, and ...


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The Saura Purana texts don't talk about Sri Madhvacharya. The text talks about a certain Brahmin named "Madhu Sharma" who was born in Andhra Pradesh (Sri Madhvacharya was born near Udupi, Karnataka). Madhu Sharma is said to be the disciple of Padmapaada Acharya. (Sri Madhvacharya was born 400 years after Padmapaada Acharya). There's too many such ...


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