I have given below a discussion of the length of the yugas in Linga Purana.
O brahmins, the Krta yuga consists of four thousand years. Four
hundred, three hundred, two hundred and hundred years respectively
constitute the period of transition both at the beginning and end of a
Linga Purana I.4.5-6
 Each Yuga is prefixed and suffixed by a ...
Its not that direct, we need to calculate it! From the Shri-Surya-Siddhanta, Chapter 1 Verse 17
युगस्य दशमो भागश्चतुस्त्रिद्वेकसंगुण: ।
क्रमात् कृतयुगादीनां षष्ठांश: सन्ध्ययो: स्वक:॥ १७॥
The tenth part of the age, multiplied successively by 4, 3, 2 and 1 gives length of golden and other ages in order. The sixth part of it belongs to its Dawn and twilight.
The years are daiva (divine) years.
Mortal's one years is equal to 1 day and night of Devas.
1 divine year = 360 human years
1 Chauturyuga = 12000 divine years
1 Manwantara = 71 Chauturyugas = 71 * 12000 = 852000 divine years = 852000 * 360 = 306720000 human years
Vishnu Purana: Book I: Chapter III mentions the Manwantara time in divine years as well as in ...
If you want scriptural injunctions for Kali Yuga, the easiest place to look would be Parashara Smriti:
1.24 For the Krita are suited the laws of Manu ; for the Treta, those
by Gautama (are) prescribed ; for the Dvapara those by Shank and
Likhita ; for the Kali, those by Parashara are prescribed.
As for Kshatriya varna, there are 15 places as far ...
Sure. There are books written by popular gurus, or otherwise their teachings or biography was recorded by their disciples, and these books become a sort of modern era scripture for their followers.
The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna
Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda
Sri Sai Satcharitra (Shirdi Sai Baba)
Autobiography of a Yogi (by Paramahansa ...
Tapasya can be done even in today's time to an extent. For example, Sadhakas like Swami Rama (and many others like him) did Tapasya under their Guru's guidance by living in the Himalayas.
You can read about the austerities they performed in books like "Living with the Himalayan Masters".
But that being said, Tapasya (austerity) is not at all best ...
Generally, there are eight kind of marriages described in many Scriptures. For example Manu Smriti, Chapter 3 gives their name as follows:
Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage-rites used by the four castes (varna) which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death.
(They are) the rite ...
Vishnu Purana: Book I: Chapter III mentions that one Manwantara is equal to 71 Chaturyuga or 306720000 human years:
a Manwantara, is equal to seventy-one times the number of years contained in the four Yugas, with some additional years: this is the duration of the Manu, the (attendant) divinities, and the rest, which is equal to 852000 divine years, or to ...
There are 4 types of Pralaya:
Nitya - people born and die everyday
Naimittika - after 1 kalpa (daytime) of Brahma (1000 chatur-yugas), 3 worlds, including earth are destroyed (whether 'destroyed' means complete destruction, or just submerged in water, not sure)
Prakrita - after 1 lifetime of Brahma, entire 14 worlds dissolved into Prakriti (other Andas ...
1. From the Skanda Purāṇa
The Kumari region being referred to, is Bharata Khanda or the Indian subcontinent. The reference above matches with puranic geography, which too illustrates these 9 divisions, but the Skanda Purana gives it in detail.
Let’s see what Suta says in the Skanda Purana:
This varṣa of Bharata is known as Bhārata. Eight sons with a ...
Here is one event that happened in a previous kaliyuga. From Skanda Purana, Pursotama-kshetra-Mahatmy, Section 2
21-23. In a former Kaliyuga, O Brāhmaṇas, the Prajāpati (Patriarch) named Dakṣa was moved with pity on seeing men suffering from distresses coming from bodies and other sources. He went there and celebrated the great festival in the manner ...
Eight immortals still exist in this Kaliyuga and would be playing important roles in coming future.
Ashwatthama and Krishńa Dwaipáyana
Krishńa Dwaipáyana still holds the title of Vyasa and Ashwatthama will be holding the title of Vayasa in 29th Dwapara Yuga:
In the next Dwápara, Drauńi (the son of Drońa) will be the Vyása, when my son, the Muni Krishńa ...
It is not advised because it is not practically possible.
Manu Smriti says:
1.85. One set of duties (is prescribed) for men in the Krita age, different ones in the Treta and in the Dvapara, and (again) another
(set) in the Kali, in a proportion as (those) ages decrease in length.
1.86. In the Krita age the chief (virtue) is declared to be (the performance ...
There is Yaksha sadhana to obtain the siddhi, however if some yaksha is hiding among us, he can be seen using method stated in KamaRatnaTantra.
KamaRatnaTantra 12th Upadesh:
वन्दा शाखोट चूतस्थागोक्षुरं छूवणं पदम् ॥
अजाक्षीरेण सम्पेष्य ललाटे तिलके कृते ।
प्रकाशं जायते सर्व तच्छणुष्व समाहितः ॥
Crush and mix stem of Shakhotaka (Streblus asper), Mango tree, ...
Yeah, Kali-yuga comprises of only 1000 divya years excluding 200 years of transition period. We are specifically in pre-sandhi period of Kali-yuga according to Jyotiṣa Vedāṅga [Ref. Sūrya Siddhānta Chapter 1.17] which would be the most appropriate place to look at for this question. Another reference of the same is in Mahābhārata, 12.231,
The duration of ...
The easiest (and the only) path to Mokṣha in the age of Kaliyuga is the japa, bhajan, dhyāna, saṅkīrtana of Hari aka Lord Viṣhṇu.
(This answer is mainly from a Vaiṣhṇava literature-based perspective)
Lord Viṣhṇu says in Padma Purana: Uttara Khanda - 92.21/22 :
नाहं वसामि वैकुंठे योगिनां हृदये न च ॥२१॥
मद्भक्ता यत्र गायंति तत्र तिष्ठामि नारद
No, it is not impossible for Dharmarājya or Rāmarājya to be established in Kaliyuga. Rather, Yugas are created by Kings.
Manusmṛti 9.301 states:
कृतं त्रेतायुगं चैव द्वापरं कलिरेव च । राज्ञो वृत्तानि सर्वाणि राजा हि
युगमुच्यते ॥ ३०१ ॥
kṛtaṃ tretāyugaṃ caiva dvāparaṃ kalireva ca | rājño vṛttāni sarvāṇi
rājā hi yugamucyate || 301 ||
The actions of the king ...
The question is who is God and why should you ask him any favors. Is this Krishna or Jesus or any one of the thousands of gods we know of? If you are Hindu and one day decide to ask Jesus for help, does it mean he won't because you are Hindu? Who is this unknown, unseen personality that we send our prayers to and expect him or her to answer. And if you feel ...
Only those who practice spiritual disciplines are guaranteed complete protection.
Whoever, being devoted to me solely, engage themselves always in
contemplation and worship of Me - to such ever steadfast devotees I
ensure the procurement of all their wants (salvation) and the
preservation of their assets.
Others have to live according to their ...