As per Rajiv Malhotra, Max Muller played double game. Although he tentatively proposed some (strange) theories, Rajiv Malhotra says later scholars used his speculations and solidified concept of Arya and Dravida and destroyed dynamic nature of Varna Dharma. His interpretations can be considered as distortions which were later used by other scholars.
Yes, that etymology is based on Nirukta 2.3.4 of Yaska:
वर्णः वृणोतेः ।
According to Unadi Sutras:
3-10 कॄवॄजॄसिद्रुपन्यनिस्वपिभ्यो नित् ॥
3.10 kRRIvRRIjRRIsidrupanyanisvapibhyo nita
Which stats Vriyat Iti Varna See page no. 101 of UnadiVriti.
In his commentary called Rigvedadi Bhashya Bhumika, Swami Dayananda Saraswati has ...
It's not exactly "a". You need to blame transliteration. Actually in Hindi or Sanskrit we have endings with " ्अ". When we speak words like "कर्म", we end the word after touching "अ".
You might be familiar with संधि विच्छेद (Separation of the constituents in a conjunct word). Take an example of that. नास्ति which literally means "doesn't exists". If we ...
Try to feel that your breath itself is silently making the sounds of
Hong and Sau.
It is quite clear that it is talking about the Hamsa Mantra also known as the Ajapa Japa which everyone does constantly but without any special effort.
There are plenty of excellent references from the Tantras on Hamsa but I'm quoting now from a minor Upanishad.
In ChAndogyo Upanishad 4.2.3 the Shudra word is found.
The translator of my book (SwAmi GambhirAnanda) says that according to ShankarAcharya and according to Brahma Sutra 1.3.34-35, here the word's Yogic meaning is implied.
And, for that meaning, the etymology is the following:
Shudra --- "ShuchA dravati" (one who melts in grief/sorrow is a
According to the translation given here, Sumanah means "beautiful mind" throughout i.e in all the applications the word is having the same meaning.
But I have a small book published by the Ramakrishna Mutt called "Sri Mahishasura Mardini Stotram" (consisting of three Stotras - the one discussed here, Bhavani Ashtakam by Adi Shankara and the Amba Stotram by ...
Here is how this journal paper translates it:
He (the Sacrificer, i.e. the king) offers the samgrahani ishti. (When he is about to offer that oblation, he says:) “I will keep this community together (under my authority).”
The paper also provides this explanation on what the verse is saying:
According to Apastamba 20.1.4, the Sacrificer offers the ...
It is wrongly translated. Traditional translators are often not scientific and rigorous.
Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, 1899 lists only earth-related senses.
Note that it even cites BhP = Bhagavata Purana as one of the texts with this occurrence!
bhūgola: m. ‘earth-ball’, the terrestrial globe, earth, Kāv. ; Pañcar. ; BhP.
The measurements Drona appear in many ancient texts. Dronacharya, who is the teacher of Kauravas and Pandavas was named after a bucket or a wooden vessel.
When Krimikanta Chola asks to sign a document saying there is no one higher than Shiva, Kurathalzhwan adds a line but Drona is higher. Here, Koorathazhwan was meaning the measurements.
There are ...
apatyam is the grammatically neuter gender Sanskrit word menaing "offspring , child , descendant".
sūnu also means both son and daughter and
Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary:
[Note the grammaatical gender of a word as opposed to its lexical sense is indicated by n. = neuter gender m. = masculine and f. = feminine]
ápatya n. offspring , child , ...
First, understand that in the Upanishads the Absolute is usually referred to as Brahman or to as 'Sat'. A few times Brahman is referred to as Sat Chit and less frequently Chit Sat. The term Sat Chit Ananda (Sat-chit-ananda, Sachchidananda, Chit-Sat-Ananda, etc., etc.) is a later derivation. These are not the qualities of Brahman as Brahman has no qualities. ...
In Manu Smriti, and other similar scriptures, both the words - Varna and Jati - are used to mean the same thing.
There are many verses in the text which will prove my point.
First of all, see the following verse which defines which are the four Varnas:
ब्राह्मणः क्षत्रियो वैश्यस्त्रयो वर्णा द्विजातयः । चतुर्थ
एकजातिस्तु शूद्रो नास्ति तु पञ्चमः ॥...
Here is a partial answer.
The Dravida word itself is a Sanskrit word as said by The Destroyer.
In Manu Smriti Dravida is simply mentioned as the name of a Vratya caste who used to be originally Kshatriyas but due to non-performance of Samskaras and sacred rites attained the Vratya status.
10.21. But from a Vratya (of the) Brahmana (caste) spring the ...
Earth or BhuMandal (भूमंडल) seems to be fit in this context rather than entire universe:
Similar verses are there in Devi Bhagvatam: Skandha 8: Chapter 21 too:
भूगोलं सगिरिसरित्समुद्रसत्त्वम् ।
को वीर्याण्यधिगणयेत्सहस्रजिह्वः ॥ ५ ॥
This answer is based on my understanding of VisishtAdvaita Siddhantham
In his treatise on Bhagavad Gita, namely, Gita Saaram, U. Ve. Sri Thirukkallam Narasimharaghavachariar Swamigal (AasthAna VidvAn of SrI Ahobila Mutt) gives the following explanation for the verse in question, i.e., BG 7.20:
Almost all jIvAtmas desire various objects and benefits (...
Repeated words are using for emphasizing something,
i.e. If someone helps us then we used to say thank you, and we trapped somewhere and someone takes out from that, then we used to say very very thank you.
Other examples are :
good, very good, very very good, very very special, very very beautiful..
In short, if we want to emphasize on something we use ...
You will find few such names in the following verses from the Devi Bhagavatam, Book 8, Chapter 24. Here it is describing which are the special food offerings that please Devi if offered on particular days, Tithis, Nakshatras etc.
21-42. O Muni! On the above tithis, if one forms daily Homas, as
stated in the Pûjâ Chapter, the Devî becomes very pleased. ...
You are correct -- in order to split nArayaNa, you cannot to nara + ayana. One of the correct split is na+ara+ayana. What doe this means? The word 'ara' means flaw (dOSha). When you have 'na' prefix it renders as 'absence of flaw'. Thus, the tatva which is 'ayana' (meaning aashraya/adobe) for flawlessness is called nArayaNa. Hence the philosophical doctrine ...
The word "shudra" etymologically means one who grieves or sorrows.
In the Chandogya Upanishad there is a story where a king is addressed by the word "shudra" because he is in grief that he has not acquired the knowledge of Brahman yet.
Brahma Sutra 1.3.33 explains the usage of the word "shudra" in that context to mean "one who grieves."
Here is ...
I can answer for kshatriya and shudra.
Kshatriya, according to wikipedia, comes from kṣatra, which means "rule, authority," because Kshatriyas are law enforcement and military.
The word "shudra" etymologically means one who grieves or sorrows.
In the Chandogya Upanishad there is a story where a king is addressed by the word "shudra" because he is in ...
According to my study, the answer for this question lies in the development of Shaivism itself.
Shaivism comprises adoration of Shiva and Parvati as divine couple, Skanda and Ganapati as their children, Nandi and others as their Ganas, eulogisation of Shiva in Puranas like Shiva Purana, etc.
We do not find mention of Shiva, as we are accustomed to now,ie., ...
That is called Horse hymn because Arvan (अर्वन्) means horse or running quickly like horse. This verse is interpreted differently. I'm here quoting two interpretations.
According to Gayatri Pariwar translation, this verse is addressing to clouds which is coming from surface of sea.
English translation would be: Hey Arvan (having agile motion), moving ...