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13

Today all most all of Hinduism is Orthodox. Due to the classification of Buddhism and Jainism as separate religion they are no longer treated as part of Hinduism. Hence, as what is left in Hinduism is being primarily based on the Vedas (the revealed scriptures) all of Hinduism is orthodox. The definition of unorthodox in Hinduism is Veda neendako nâstikaha....


13

As I discuss in this answer, the word Smartha originally just meant "follower of Smriti. (Hinduism has two sets of scripture, Shruti or "that which is heard" and Smriti or "that which is remembered.) But the Smartha came to denote the followers of the sect founded by Adi Shankaracharya, which he did in order to create a more streamlined version of Hinduism....


11

Rajiv Malhotra's book Indra's Net deals with this question. This has already been mentioned in an answer in this site. The book claims that it is Vijnanabhikshu who unified Hinduism in the 16th century. I disagree with Malhotra's claim. It is Shankara who united Hinduism centuries before Madhava, Vijnanabhikshu and others. He is remembered as the ...


10

Hinduism has many sects. It depends upon what perspective you are considering it from. It all starts from the Vedas. However, Vedas being not consistent in their philosophies, different schools of thought emerged in India either by accepting or rejecting the authority of the Vedas. Those schools of thought which accept its authority are part of Hinduism and ...


10

Here's what I will say about this with all due respect. I had been a member of ISKCON for several years during my undergraduate degree (no longer one). My observations are as follows:- 1) ISKCON is a highly anglicized (almost Christianized) version of Vaishnav movements of the olden times (and by that I mean movements of Sri Ramanuja, Sant Tukaram and other ...


9

The keynote to Hinduism is 'Ekam Sat Vipra Bahudha Vadanti - That which exists is One, men call it by various names'. All religions are true. Ramakrishna Parmahamsa said All clocks tell time, but all show a different time and none are exactly right. So are all religions. Who are we to argue as to what is true or not true in a particular religion? Have you ...


9

The primary sect of Hinduism which rejects idol worship is the reformist sect Arya Samaj, founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswati. Dayananda presents several arguments against idol worship in his book The Satyarth Prakash (The Light of Truth), but here are two of them: 1) He argues that it insults the omnipresence of God to worship him in a localized form, ...


8

Natha Sampradaya Acknowledges Dwaita-Advaita Vilakshana Vada. It is both Dvaita and Advaita. At absolute level it recognises formless, nameless thing as Absolute truth which is called by the name Para Shiva. The Absolute level is described as: अनामेति स्वयंमनादि सिद्धमेकमेवानादिनिधनं सिद्धसिद्धान्तप्रसिद्धं तस्येच्छामात्राधर्माधर्मिणी निजा शक्तिः प्रसिद्धा...


7

Technically speaking Purava Mimasma was not an nastika (atheistic) system as per definition of nastika in our scriptures. Only those which didn't accept the authority of the Vedas are called as nastika irrespective of whether they believe in afterlife, God, etc. But yes, like the general meaning of atheism, Mimamsa School didn't believe in the existence of ...


7

One I know of is the followers of Arya Samaj. They don't do such because they do not believe God takes incarnations and hence has any form. They believe God is formless, hence He cannot have any pictures, idols, etc. So they perform fire rituals instead. Refernce: Arya Samaj Website


7

In the philosophical (Vedanta) side, Hinduism has two divisions: Dvaitha and Advaitha. Dvaita philosophy was founded by Shri Madhavacharya. It says that jivatma (individual souls) are different from the paramatma (the Supreme Soul). The Advaitha philosophy is thought to be proposed by Shri Gaudapadacharya. Advaitha literally means 'not-two' in Sanskrit. It ...


7

Sect in Sanskrit is called SampradAya. And, it is the backbone of the Tantras. So, sects are widely mentioned in Tantras. Sects are also mentioned in PurAnas as well as in some Smritis. The reason why various sects should exist is that the amount of knowledge is infinite, the mantras are numerous and the doctrines and philosophies are also many. So, ...


6

Rajiv Malothra's book Indra's Net precisely deals with this. First, to understand what the term Hinduism means, refer to this question: What is the origin of the word "Hindu"? Refer to Myths 2,3,6 from this page from Indra's Net book's site. Also on the same page see "Summary of both sides of the debate". I am not quoting it here as it is too ...


6

ISKCON is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation. They are in fact Hindus. But they consider Sri Krishna as the supreme lord (Swayam Bhagawan) and claim to follow the Mahabharata and Bhagawath Gita. They describe Sri Krishna as the source of all the avatars of God. It was established to propagate spiritual knowledge, consciousness of Krishna, The ...


6

nAgA sAdhus (ascetics) are a part of hindu sect who usually wander without clothes. There are several sub sects of sampradayas among these. They are like warrior monks of Hinduism. They are usually seen in large numbers during kumbha melA, the largest hindu religious gathering. They are well trained in wrestling and swordsmanship etc. They can be ...


5

Purva Mimamsa was a school of philosophy founded by the sage Jaimini whose central dogma was that the Vedas were Apaurusheya or authorless. Other schools also believed that the Vedas were Apaurusheya in the sense that they had no human author, but Purva Mimamsa went one step further in saying that they had no connection to any divine source either: they ...


5

Here are the ones I've found so far: The Smartha sect of Adi Shankaracharya says "Sri Parameshwara Prityartam" or "Parvati Parameshwara Prityartam", meaning for the pleasure of Sri Parameshwara or Parvati Parameshwara, both names of Shiva. The Thenkalai sub-sect of the Sri Vaishnava sect says "Sri Bhagavat Agna, Bhagavat Kainkarya Rupam", meaning by the ...


5

Hare Krishnas are Hindus. His philosophical teaching of achintya bhedabheda which are based upon Hindu scriptures. When their philosophy has roots from Hindu scriptures then Yes, ISKCON versions of Hindu scriptures qualify as Hindu scripture. In Distinguishing Srila Prabhupada's Original Books from Changed Ones, there is a reference which says ...


4

It is hard to classify Hinduism as Orthodox & Heterodox. Hinduism has always been fluid with many Sampradayas(traditions/philosophical views) existing at the same time and evolving together. With respect to Christianity, the religion was centrally controlled and codified and what prevailed became Orthodoxy(all sects which subscribe to Nicene Creed are ...


4

In his book The Spiritual Heritage of India, Swami Prabhavananda says (pp 143-145, section heading: The Tantras): The Tantras are the scriptures by means of which knowledge is spread in order to save humanity from ignorance. They are also known as Agamas--revelations, in conformity, that is, with the revelations of the Vedas. Their authorship is unknown ...


4

The two parts of the Vedas should not be thought of as opposites but rather complementary. One part consists of dharma, the other part with moksha. In his book A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Dr. Prof. Chandradhar Sharma writes (pp 211-12): The word Mimamsa literally means ‘revered thought’ and was originally applied to the interpretation of the ...


4

Both pro and con opinions regarding other sects able to provide liberation are available. Sri Ramakrishna, for example, says that all sects are paths to God. “With sincerity and earnestness one can realize God through all religions. The Vaishnavas will realize God, and so will the Saktas, the Vedantists, and the Brahmos. The Musalmans and Christians ...


4

First of all I think this question is more suitable for meta rather than main site. But since you have asked, so here is my answer. First we should know What is ISKCON? The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), otherwise known as the Hare Krishna movement, includes five hundred major centers, temples and rural communities, nearly one ...


4

First of all, according to legend, Sri Hari is said to have taught His worship to His four devotees: Lakshmi, Shiva, the Sanat-Kumaras & Brahma. They, in turn, founded the four main Sampradayas (sects) respectively: Sri Sampradaya, Rudra Sampradaya, Kumara Sampradaya & Brahma Sampradaya. Each of this Sampradayas have further divisions. The Sri ...


4

Yes, we can say Swaminarayana is a sub-sect of Sri Sampradaya of Vaishnavism. Swami Ramananda was Guru of Sahajananda Swami. Swami Ramananda told that Ramanujacharya once gave him diksha (initiation) in dream and hence he adopted Vishitadvaita doctrine of Ramanujacharya. Now talking about scriptures, Shikshapatri and Vachanamruta are two core scriptures ...


3

Being a devotee of Lord Shiva does not give him rights to alter the Kula Devata of his family.So that is not right. Moreover, if one is a "true" devotee of any God,then he sees all Gods as same and one with his Ista Devata. He can worship Lord Shiva at the beginning of his daily religous duties before starting the pujas and havans that he is supposed to ...


3

The Saiva Siddhanta Church doesn't subscribe to the Brahma Sutras. I emailed the editors of Hinduism Today, the popular magazine published by the Saiva Siddhanta Church. They replied that unlike other sects of Hinduism, they don't belong to the Vedanta school: The schools of Vedanta all have commentaries on the principal Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras ...


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