10 votes
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What is the means of attaining Moksha according to the different Astika schools?

Let me address each of the six Astika schools: Samkhya: The Samkhya school believed that meditation on the 25 Tattvas, i.e. Purusha or soul, Prakriti or matter/energy, and the 23 evolutes of Prakriti,...
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10 votes
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What is the difference between Nyaya and Vaisheshika?

Let me start off by saying that it is natural to ask what the differences are between the Nyaya school and the Vaisheshika school are, because of how closely related they are. First of all, the six ...
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9 votes
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What are the different schools of thoughts in Hinduism and what is the difference between each of them?

This is taken from this blog https://tattvamasiblog.wordpress.com/2020/11/28/concise-overview-of-indian-religious-schools-focused-on-hinduism/ based on “A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy”, ...
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  • 4,345
9 votes

What is the earliest Hindu work refuting Mleccha religions or philosophies?

Following verses by Lord Shiva can be considered as the earliest works where he is criticising Mleccha(foreign) religions/philosophies as it was claimed to say at the commencement of Kaliyuga. From ...
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8 votes
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How do different Astika schools prove the existence of God?

Let me address each of the four Astika schools which unequivocally accept the existence of God: Yoga: Here is what Vyasa says in this excerpt from the Yoga Bhashya: This seed of omniscience is the ...
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7 votes
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What do the different Astika schools think the Universe is made of?

Let me address each of the six Astika schools: Samkhya: The Samkhya school believed that an unintelligent substance called Prakriti is the material cause of the Universe. Here is what Ishwara ...
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7 votes
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What is the size of the soul according to the different Astika schools?

Non-Vedantic Astika schools think the soul is omnipresent, whereas most Vedantins think it's atomic in size.. Let me address each of the six Astika schools: Samkhya: The Samkhya school believed that ...
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7 votes
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Did the Purva Mimamsa school believe that Brahman exists?

The Purva Mimamsa school was divided on the existence of Brahman. But one thing they all agreed on was tha Brahman (if Brahman even existed) was neither the creator of the Universe, nor the author of ...
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6 votes
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How do non-vedanta darshanas deal with shruti statements about Brahman?

I know of two non-Vedantic Astika schools which seriously engage with the statements in the Upanishads about Brahman: Purva Mimansa As I discuss in this question Mimamsakas believed that the ...
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6 votes
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What is the concept of God according to Vaisheshika school of philosophy?

The Vaisesika school is an early scientific school. It postulates the existence of atoms. God according to this school arranges the atoms in a manner that leads to the observed universe. It is in ...
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5 votes

What are different Vadas associated with different philosophies?

There are primarily three VAdas that are associated with the Shad Darshanas. Aramabha VAda, 2. ParinAma VAda and 3. Vivarta VAda. There is also a SamghAta VAda which is held by the SautrAntika and ...
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5 votes

Are there verses from scriptures which list 24 tattvas according to Sankhya Darshana?

http://srimadbhagavatam.org/canto3/chapter26.html (11) That primary nature is known as the basis from which the five gross and five subtle elements, the ten senses of perception and action and ...
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5 votes

Which is the first text to mention 6 Darshanas?

Is the term Shada Darshana mentioned in Puranas or in any other text? I have found the term mentioned in the KulArnava Tantram twice. Shada-darsana mahAkupe patitAh pashavah priye| ParamArtham ...
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5 votes

What is the means of attaining Moksha according to the different Astika schools?

In Kashmiri Shaivism, Liberation or Moksha which brings JagadAnanda wherein whole universe become one's own body is achieved by a class of techniques called ShAmbhavopaye. Other classes of techniques ...
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4 votes

What are the Nyaya-Vaisheshika arguments against sound as a vibration of air?

I found one argument from the Vaisheshika school. It occurs in this excerpt Prashastapada's Padartha Dharma Sangraha, the second-oldest work of the Vaisheshika school. Prashastapada doesn't just try ...
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4 votes
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Do the astika philosophies directly subscribe to the vedas?

All of them accept the existence of Atman (Jiva) and Brahman (God) and all of them accept the validity/authenticity of Vedas. Refer following the closely related QA by Keshavan for detailed ...
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  • 24.1k
4 votes

Which of the six Darshanas are atheistic?

In Tattva Viveka, Bhaktivinoda Thakur speaks about this topic. This work is a philosophical sally against both western and eastern philosophies including other religions like Islam, Christianity etc ...
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3 votes
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How does Vijnanabhiksu accept Samkhya despite being a theist?

Vijnanabhikshu believed that Kapila, the founder of the Samkhya school, was an incarnation of Vishnu, and that Kapila just pretended to reject the existence of Ishwara in order to deceive people. But ...
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3 votes

Can somebody explain the Samkhya theory of creation in a clear and concise manner?

The Samkhya theory of creation is that there are two kinds of entities in the Universe, Purushas or souls and Prakriti or matter/energy, and that when Prakriti is in the presence of a Purusha, it ...
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3 votes
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How do different Astika schools prove the existence of the soul?

All the Astika schools think the existence of the soul can be proven through Anumana or inference. (At least it appears that way, although see my caveat under the Vedanta school.) Let me address each ...
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3 votes

What is the relationship between cause and effect as enunciated by Maharishi Kanada?

Maharishi Kanada talks about the relationship between cause and effect in the following Shlokas: Shloka 1.2.1. कारणभवात् कार्य्याभावः ।। १ । २ । १ ।। कारणभवात् (Kaaranabhaavaat), from the non-...
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3 votes

What is the earliest Hindu work refuting Mleccha religions or philosophies?

Jayanta-bhaTTa (c. 9th Century CE), in his drama AgamADambara, makes some excellent specifications about which religions/ traditions merit respect and tolerance. Quoting from this secondary source: ...
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3 votes
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Does moksha happen after death or in same life according to Nyaya darshan?

First of all, Nyāyadarśana uses the word apavarga (अपवर्ग), for Mokṣa, which literally means fulfillment or completion. The other word, niḥśreyas (निःश्रेयस) also occurs as alternative to Mokṣa, which ...
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  • 10.7k
2 votes

Who believes in 10 Pramanas?

Jiva Goswami of Gaudiya Vaishnavism accepts all 10 pramanas. Here is what this website has to say: By accepting only three of the ten pramanas Jiva Gosvami does not exclude the other seven. He ...
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  • 20.8k
2 votes

Do any of the darshanas believe that Buddhi is the Self?

Though I don't know of any specific sources which directly claim that Self is Intellect/Thought, ie Atma is Buddhi, but you can certainly find that such schools existed - one being the Buddhist - as ...
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  • 556
1 vote

Do the astika philosophies directly subscribe to the vedas?

Swami Vireswarananda in his Introduction to his translation of the Brahma Sutras writes on page ii-iii (here - https://www.wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/brahma-sutras/d/doc62756.html): The ...
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1 vote
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On Samkhya and Individuality. How many purushas are there?

According to this article ref here from Eötvös Loránd University (Hungary) An important difference between schools of Indian philosophy that recognize mokṣa(liberation) as an end is the accepted ...
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  • 303
1 vote
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How Yoga and Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy are related?

To give a first answer: Samkhya is the theory, while Yoga is the corresponding practice. The goal of Samkhya is to end suffering. To obtain this goal „a superior method […] is the discriminative ...
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