Let me start off by saying that it is natural to ask what the differences are between the Nyaya school and the Vaisheshika school are, because of how closely related they are. First of all, the six Astika schools are often grouped into three groups of two: Samkhya-Yoga, Nyaya-Vaisheshika, and Mimamsa-Vedanta. That's because the Samkhya and Yoga schools ...
Let me address each of the four Astika schools which unequivocally accept the existence of God:
Yoga: Here is what Vyasa says in this excerpt from the Yoga Bhashya:
This seed of omniscience is the cognition of the [smallness] or [largeness] of the perception of supersensorious objects past, present, and future, individually as well as collectively. And ...
The Purva Mimamsa school was divided on the existence of Brahman. But one thing they all agreed on was tha Brahman (if Brahman even existed) was neither the creator of the Universe, nor the author of the Vedas, nor even omniscient. In fact, they didn't even believe the Universe is ever created or destroyed! Here is what the Purva Mimamsa philosopher Kumarila ...
Let me address each of the six Astika schools:
Samkhya: The Samkhya school believed that an unintelligent substance called Prakriti is the material cause of the Universe. Here is what Ishwara Krishna says in verse 16 of the Samkhya Karika:
kāraṇam asti avyaktaṃ pravartate triguṇataḥ samudayāt ca
pariṇāmataḥ salilavat pratiprattiguṇāśrayaviśeṣāt
Non-Vedantic Astika schools think the soul is omnipresent, whereas most Vedantins think it's atomic in size.. Let me address each of the six Astika schools:
Samkhya: The Samkhya school believed that the soul is omnipresent. Here is what Kapila says in Adhyaya 1 Sutra 50 of the Samkhya Sutras:
Following verses by Lord Shiva can be considered as the earliest works where he is criticising Mleccha(foreign) religions/philosophies as it was claimed to say at the commencement of Kaliyuga. From the 9th Chapter of Shiva Rahasya.
Others will proclaim that dead men lie asleep in their grave and will be brought back to life in their former bodies ...
Let me address each of the six Astika schools:
Samkhya: The Samkhya school believed that meditation on the 25 Tattvas, i.e. Purusha or soul, Prakriti or matter/energy, and the 23 evolutes of Prakriti, is what leads to knowledge of the difference between Purusha and Prakriti, which is what leads to Moksha. Here is what Ishwara Krishna says in verses 64-66 of ...
(11) That primary nature is known as the basis from which the five
gross and five subtle elements, the ten senses of perception and
action and the four internal sense departments [of mind, ego,
consciousness and intelligence] evolved who together add up to a
number of twenty-four [see also ...
In Kashmiri Shaivism, Liberation or Moksha which brings JagadAnanda wherein whole universe become one's own body is achieved by a class of techniques called ShAmbhavopaye. Other classes of techniques which are ShAktopAye & AnavopAye are just to make aspirant capable to practice ShAmbhavopAye. Why I am using the word class is because there are many ...
I know of two non-Vedantic Astika schools which seriously engage with the statements in the Upanishads about Brahman:
As I discuss in this question Mimamsakas believed that the Upanishads provide knowledge of the Jivatma, not Paramatma, and that this knowledge serves a useful purpose in Yagnas. See this excerpt of Shabara's commentary on ...
I found one argument from the Vaisheshika school. It occurs in this excerpt Prashastapada's Padartha Dharma Sangraha, the second-oldest work of the Vaisheshika school. Prashastapada doesn't just try to show that sound is a phenomenon of Akasha, he tries to prove the existence of Akasha using the existence of sound. He argues that sound cannot be a ...
Is the term Shada Darshana mentioned in Puranas or in any other text?
I have found the term mentioned in the KulArnava Tantram twice.
Shada-darsana mahAkupe patitAh pashavah priye| ParamArtham na jAnanti pashupAshaniyantritAh ||
The Pashus are fallen into a giant well of the form of the six
philosophies (Shadadarshana mahAkupa). Bounded by the ...
All the Astika schools think the existence of the soul can be proven through Anumana or inference. (At least it appears that way, although see my caveat under the Vedanta school.) Let me address each of the six Astika schools:
Samkhya: Here is what Ishwara Krishna says in verse 17 of the Samkhya Karika:
saṃghātaparārthatvāt triguṇādiviparyayād ...
In Tattva Viveka, Bhaktivinoda Thakur speaks about this topic.
This work is a philosophical sally against both western and eastern philosophies including other religions like Islam, Christianity etc originally written in Bengali.
In Text 17 he says:
sarvesam nastikanam vai matam etat puratanam desa-bhasa-vibhedena
laksitam ca prthak prthak
There are primarily three VAdas that are associated with the Shad Darshanas.
Aramabha VAda, 2. ParinAma VAda and 3. Vivarta VAda. There is also a SamghAta VAda which is held by the SautrAntika and VaibhAshika Bauddhas in which they believe that the Ghata (pot) is the SamghAta (interaction) of the mud particles but they don't recognize the particles changing ...
Vijnanabhikshu believed that Kapila, the founder of the Samkhya school, was an incarnation of Vishnu, and that Kapila just pretended to reject the existence of Ishwara in order to deceive people. But this isn't like the case of Vishnu's incarnation Buddha, who deceived the Asuras in order to hurt them. Rather, Vijnanabhikshu argues that Kapila deceived ...
Jayanta-bhaTTa (c. 9th Century CE), in his drama AgamADambara, makes some excellent specifications about which religions/ traditions merit respect and tolerance. Quoting from this secondary source:
Following are the laks.an.as of the religions which can be accorded
It must have an unbroken line of teachers
Aryas (people of noble
Maharishi Kanada talks about the relationship between cause and effect in the following Shlokas:
कारणभवात् कार्य्याभावः ।। १ । २ । १ ।।
कारणभवात् (Kaaranabhaavaat), from the non-existence of cause
कार्य्याभावः (Kaaryyabhaavah), non-existence of effect
Non-existence of effect (follows) from the non-existence of cause
Jiva Goswami of Gaudiya Vaishnavism accepts all 10 pramanas.
Here is what this website has to say:
By accepting only three of the ten pramanas Jiva Gosvami does not exclude the other seven. He says that pratyaksa, anumana, and sabda includes the other seven pramanas. The breakdown is as follows: upamana, arthapatti, sambhava, and cesta are included in ...
The Samkhya theory of creation is that there are two kinds of entities in the Universe, Purushas or souls and Prakriti or matter/energy, and that when Prakriti is in the presence of a Purusha, it evolves into a variety of different forms. Here is what Ishwara Krishna's Samkhya Karika, a defining text of the Samkhya school, says:
Primal Nature is not an ...
All of them accept the existence of Atman (Jiva) and Brahman (God) and all of them accept the validity/authenticity of Vedas.
Refer following the closely related QA by Keshavan for detailed information:
How do different Astika schools prove the existence of the soul?
How do different Astika schools prove the existence of God?
Touching the point of ...
Swami Vireswarananda in his Introduction to his translation of the Brahma Sutras writes on page ii-iii (here - https://www.wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/brahma-sutras/d/doc62756.html):
The destructive criticism of everything in the old system by the Chârvâkas and others set the orthodox section to organize their belief on a more rationalistic basis and ...
According to this article ref here from Eötvös Loránd University (Hungary)
An important difference between schools of Indian philosophy that
recognize mokṣa(liberation) as an end is the accepted number of souls.
In Buddhism there is no separate soul to be liberated. In Advaita
Vedānta, there is one common world-soul, and individuality is a
Though I don't know of any specific sources which directly claim that Self is Intellect/Thought, ie Atma is Buddhi, but you can certainly find that such schools existed - one being the Buddhist - as their arguments have been mentioned and systematically rejected in the Dakshinamurthy Stotra here.
One needs to be careful when comparing with Descartes (or any ...
To give a first answer: Samkhya is the theory, while Yoga is the corresponding practice.
The goal of Samkhya is to end suffering. To obtain this goal „a superior method […] is the discriminative knowledge of the manifest, the unmanifest and the knowing one“ (Karika II). Samkhya elaborates the relevant knowledge as a worldview based on the concept of ...
There is a discussion between Yudhishthira and Bhishma on this issue.
Yudhishthira siad, 'It behoveth thee to explain to me, O sire, what
the difference is between the Sankhya and the Yoga system of
philosophy. O foremost one of Kuru's race, everything is known to
thee, O thou that art conversant with all duties!'
Bhishma said, 'The followers ...