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15

Shruti(श्रुति) means that which has been heard or communicated from the beginning. Veda(वेद) are Shruti scripture. It is said/believed that Rishi in the state of Tapasya heard Vedas directly from Parabrahma/Parameshwara, In other words Rishi attained this jnana in state of samadhi which is called Shruti. So, Vedas are called अपौरुषेय that means it is not ...


14

Taking refugee under Supreme Lord (Sharanagati) is based on shruti sources also. Svetasvatara Upanishad (4.21) states: अजात इत्येवं कश्चिद्भीरुः प्रपद्यते । रुद्र यत्ते दक्षिणं मुखं तेन मां पाहि नित्यम् ॥ २१॥ It is because Thou, O Lord, art birthless, that some rare souls, frightened by birth and death, take refuge in Thee. O Rudra, may Thy south ...


10

Yes, there is reference to the Tri GunAs in the Vedas. See the following Mantra from Atharva Veda (AV): Pundarikam navadwAram (1) Tribhir gunebhirAvritam (2) Tasmin yad yakshamAtmanvat (3) Tad vai brahmavido viduhu (4). ............. There is a nine-gated lotus (1), covered under three bands of GunAs (tribhir gunebhi) (2), in which lives ...


8

Shruti Shruti when translated to English is 'that which is/was heard(by ancient seers/Rishis)'. So in hinduism there is only one scripture or literature which is heard (from the divine bramhan) that is Vedas, only the Samhita part of the Vedas is shruti since it is the only part that was heard by Rishi's in their deep meditations. So due to divine ...


8

According to the ParAshara Smriti (PS) the Vedas are recalled by Lord BrahmA at the beginning of each Kalpa. Na kashchitvedakartA cha vedam smritvA chaturmukham | Tathaiva dharmAn smarati manuh kalpAntareantare || The author of the Veda there is none ; (he) the fourfaced (God), at each succeeding revolution of a Kalpa, recalls to mind the Veda ; ...


7

From Manu Smriti 2.10: Srutis tu vedo vigneyo dharmashAstram tu vai smriti | OR By Sruti is meant the Veda and by Smritis are meant the Dharma ShAstras. So, the VedAnta Sutras is a Darshana scripture and it's neither Sruti nor Smriti. Just because, some texts/scriptures has authors do not mean they all fall into the Smriti category. For ...


7

"Sruti" means which has been heard.Sruti refers to the Vedas. "Smriti" however refers to the Dharma Shastras.Smriti means which has to be remembered.It also means traditions that has to be remembered.So,Smritis are the traditions that are handed down to us from time immemorial. There are 18 major Smritis :Manu,Yajnvalkya,Vyasa,Atri,Vishnu,Harita,Parashara,...


6

First of all it should be understand that Agama is a very wide subject. It involves various aspects such as mantra, yantra, upasana, diksha, anushthana, temple construction, idol construction and so on. There are many references which say that shruti are of two kinds. One is Vedas and other is agama. There is another post on agamas which you can go through ...


6

Though Bhashya of Adi Shankaracharya on this verse of BG doens't elaborate much, according to Sri Ramanujacharya, Brahmanas means the Vedas. Quoting Sri Ramanujacharya's Bhashya on mentioned verse: English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary By Swami Adidevananda 17.23 Here Brahman means the Veda. It is the secondary meaning of the expression, ...


6

Do Veda have more than one Samhita regarding to Shakha? Yes, each Shakha of Veda has it's own Samhita. There were 21 Shakhas of RigVeda, 1000 Shakhas of SamaVeda, 101 Shakhas of Yajurveda and 9 Shakhas of Atharvaveda as I discuss in my answer here. Thus total about 1131 Samhitas. We have only about 12 Shakhas alive with 12 Samhitas. In other words, does ...


5

Vedas are considered Shruti scriptures. Shruti scriptures have been heard unlike the Smriti scriptures which are remembered. Shruti scriptures are believed to be the record of the intuitive perception of Vedic Rishis of the Divine. Smriti scriptures have human authors and are considered to be commentaries on the Divine Vedas. Shruti scriptures include the ...


4

Yes The three gunas is mentioned in Maitri upanishad here Fifth Prapathaka In the beginning 5 darkness (tamas) alone was this. It was in the Highest, and, moved by the Highest, it becomes uneven Thus it becomes obscurity ragas) . Then this obscurity, being moved, becomes uneven. Thus it becomes goodness sattva). Then this goodness, being moved, the ...


3

Adding to what Rickross has said, Several commentators of the Brahma Sutra consider it as one of the Prasthana Trayi, the others being Srimad Bhagavad Gita (Chapter 25-42, Bhishma Parva, Mahabharata) and the 10 principal Upanishads (Mukhya Upanishads). In this classification, Upanishads are all as the Sruti Prasthana (representing Sruthi's point of view) ...


2

Yes the classification is accordingly Shruti and Smriti. The Shrutis : Shruti means 'to hear', so all the books which are been heard by the rishis come under a general term called Shruti. The Shruti are the most sacred of the two types. The Shrutis are more truthfull and in case of hinduism termed as perfect and flawless. The books under this category are ...


2

Yes, you can get original Sanskrit text of Baudhayana Shulba Sutra from: Vedic Reserve Sanskrit Wikisource Note: If you don't know reading Devanagari, you may use transliteration tool.


2

The Vedas are revealed to human civilization only at the beginning of every Treta yuga. Srimad Bhagavatam: 11.17.11: In Satya-yuga the undivided Veda is expressed by the syllable om, and I am the only object of mental activities. I become manifest as the four-legged bull of religion, and thus the inhabitants of Satya-yuga, fixed in austerity and free ...


2

Even in the Rig Veda, 10th mandala language style is a bit different from other mandalas. It has younger linguistic features as it was written at the later ages. Atharva Veda language style also differs from Rigveda. Ref. The Rigveda: The earliest religious poetry of India. Stephanie W. Jemison and Joel P. Brereton.


2

In the Shruti there is no clear thing written about Varna, but I have some reference about it. As per the Shruti, There was only one Varna Brahmana and they were later divided by the Brahmin. Brihadarankya Upanishad1:4:11-13 Verily in the beginning this was Brahman, oneonly. That being one, was not strong enough. It created still further the most excellent ...


2

Do Sruti texts mention either or both of birth-based varna and guna-based varna? There are several Sruti texts that state Varna is based on birth. I've listed a few below: Chhandogya Upanishad 5.10.7 - Those whose conduct has been good here will shortly get birth such as a Brahmana (brahmana yonim), a kshatriya, or a vaishya. But those whose conduct ...


2

Which Śruti texts explicitly state that varna is based on birth? There are several Sruti texts that state Varna is based on birth. I've listed a few below: Chhandogya Upanishad 5.10.7 - Those whose conduct has been good here will shortly get birth such as a Brahmana (brahmana yonim), a kshatriya, or a vaishya. But those whose conduct has been evil will ...


2

What are the arguments of Purva Mimansa that says Brahmanas are Apaurusheya? Their argument is that the entire Vedas, aranyakas and upanishads included, do not have an author because there is no recollection of authorship. Here is where the relevant argument starts. They say (paraphrased by me): Our answer to this view is as follows: What we have asserted ...


1

Shukla Yajurveda clearly mentions varna as birth-based. As per Shukla Yajurveda 22.22 -(translation of T.H. Griffith from The Texts of White Yajurveda)- O Brahman! Let there be born in the kingdom the Brahmin illustrious for religious knowledge; let there be born the Rajanya, heroic, skilled archer, piercing with shafts, mighty warriors; the cow giving ...


1

First of all, Krishna Yajurveda is mixed with the Brahmana portion. Purusha Sukta is talking about the creation of 4 Varnas obviously not humans because we came with Manu and the Saptrishis. Rig Veda 9.63 says: इन्द्रं वर्धन्तो अप्तुर: कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् । अपघ्नन्तो अराव्णः ॥ This is a prayer to make all humans Aryas. So when Krishna Yajurveda is ...


1

There's nothing in Shruti that supports the claim that Varna is based on birth. I cannot provide any citation as none exist. You might ask why didn't Shruti say anything about the birth based Varna. Well the reason is that Shruti is meant for reasonable human beings. It's sole purpose is to tell us who we are. Prajnanam Brahma (प्रज्ञानम् ब्रह्म) ...


1

See the verse given below: If a Sudra uses abusive language or physical violence against twice-born people, the part of his body used for the crime should be chopped off. If he has sex with an Arya woman, his penis should be cut off and all his property confiscated; if the woman had a guardian, then, in addition to the above, he shall ...


1

Hindu scriptures can be broadly classified as follows: 1.Vedas 2.Upanishads 3.Smritis 4.Agama & Tantra 5.Darsana 6.Itihasa Of these 6 divisions everything except the 6th one ,viz:Itihasa, come under either Sruti or Smriti classifications. Itihasa comprises of the Ramayana & the Mahabharata.


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