References of Devas like Indra, Varun, Agni etc. doing severe tapasya to seek extra ordinary powers/boon in order to counter attack Asuras.
Yes in in Brahmanda Purana there is a story of Indra and all the devas performing a penance at the slopes of Himalaya in order to defeat Asura leader Bhandasura and all the other asuras , Who is later Killed By Devi ...
Tapas means austerity and not Dhyana (which is meditation). And "Tapasya" is "performing austerities".
Tapasya is basically performed by forcefully subduing the sensory organs. So, it involves not-so-pleasurable acts like fasting etc.
From Sandilya Upanishad's 1st Chapter:
Under Niyama (religious observances), are ten, viz., Tapas, Santosha Astikya, ...
Your question basically here is: How to do penance now (in Kali Yuga) without dying?
Then the answer is it is not possible to do Tapasya now like it was used to be done in the earlier Yugas (specially in Satya Yuga).
Even in Treta Yuga, Tapasya was not the ideal way. Knowledge (Jnanam) was. Tapas was the suited way only for Satya Yuga. In Kali Yuga it is ...
You cannot say the exact reason why they are doing tapasya. But while doing so, they are praying one another in a cycle.
I have read one short story about this in "Shiv Puran". It says,
Once, Mata Parvati got curious about the same thought that why is Lord Shiva always doing tap? To whom is he praying?
So he asked Lord Shiva the same. In reply to that Lord ...
As per Chapter 5th of Kurma Purana,
17b. One day of god Brahma is called a Kalpa and his
night is of the same duration.
-19. Learned men say that a thousand sets of four
yugas constitute one Kalpa. Three hundred and sixty Kalpas
make one year of god Brahma, O excellent Brahmanas,
Hundred times of that period is called a Parardha by them.
Sri Krishna said in B.G.:
मां च योऽव्यभिचारेण भक्ितयोगेन सेवते।
स गुणान्समतीत्यैतान् ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते।।14.26।।
Whosoever serves Me alone with an unfailing devotion-Yoga, he, transcending these Strands, turns to be the Brahman.
One must understand that the purpose of reaching highest stage in SPIRITUALITY/BRAHMAN, is to attain ABSOLUTE BLISS , ...
One can perform penance to Lord Indra by doing a Samvatsara Vrata. The presiding deity of this vrata is Indra.
There is interesting story described in Adi Parva-Sambhava Parva - Chapter 122- Of Mahabharata , where there is story of birth of Yudhisthira ,Bhima and Arjuna. Pandu father of all the pandavas performed the penance to Indra by keeping this ...