As per Chapter 5th of Kurma Purana,
17b. One day of god Brahma is called a Kalpa and his
night is of the same duration.
-19. Learned men say that a thousand sets of four
yugas constitute one Kalpa. Three hundred and sixty Kalpas
make one year of god Brahma, O excellent Brahmanas,
Hundred times of that period is called a Parardha by them.
Your question basically here is: How to do penance now (in Kali Yuga) without dying?
Then the answer is it is not possible to do Tapasya now like it was used to be done in the earlier Yugas (specially in Satya Yuga).
Even in Treta Yuga, Tapasya was not the ideal way. Knowledge (Jnanam) was. Tapas was the suited way only for Satya Yuga. In Kali Yuga it is ...
Sri Krishna said in B.G.:
मां च योऽव्यभिचारेण भक्ितयोगेन सेवते।
स गुणान्समतीत्यैतान् ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते।।14.26।।
Whosoever serves Me alone with an unfailing devotion-Yoga, he, transcending these Strands, turns to be the Brahman.
One must understand that the purpose of reaching highest stage in SPIRITUALITY/BRAHMAN, is to attain ABSOLUTE BLISS , ...
One can perform penance to Lord Indra by doing a Samvatsara Vrata. The presiding deity of this vrata is Indra.
There is interesting story described in Adi Parva-Sambhava Parva - Chapter 122- Of Mahabharata , where there is story of birth of Yudhisthira ,Bhima and Arjuna. Pandu father of all the pandavas performed the penance to Indra by keeping this ...