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It's true that Brahman is conscious, and that Brahman is the one that gives both rewards and punishments, so in that sense it is the efficient cause of all suffering. But it is not being cruel or capricious in doing this; it is doing this in accordance with the law of Karma. Here is what Adi Shankaracharya says in his commentary on the Brahma Sutras: ...


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The path of knowledge is commonly referred to as Jnana Yoga. What is meant by Jnana depends upon the scripture being read. Oftentimes scripture will distinguish between Vijnana (refers to Knowledge -meaning Realization of Brahman, Transcendent Perception of the Ultimate) and Jnana (meaning mental and scriptural knowledge/understanding of Brahman, but not ...


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One has to see the full context regarding how the Mahavakya is spoken. The complete verse from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is as: ब्रह्म वा इदमग्र आसीत्, तदात्मानमेवावेत् ‘अहं ब्रह्मास्मि’ इति । तस्मात् तत् सर्वमभवतद्यो यो देवानां प्रत्यबुध्यत स एव तदभवत्तथर्षीणां तथा मनुष्याणां तद्धेतत्पश्यन्नृषिर्वामदेवः प्रतिपेदेऽहं मनुरभवं सूर्यश्चेति । तदिदमप्येतर्हि य ...


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The Mahavakyas are "Grand Pronouncements" or "Great Sayings" usually taken from Upanishads. They have profound significance in Hinduism. The four Mahavakyas (महावाक्यानि) are as follows: 1. Prajñānaṃ Brahma (प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म) From Aitareya Upanishad 3.3 of the Rig Veda. Also called लक्षणा वाक्य. It is about (pure) consciousness of Brahman 2. Tat Tvam Asi ...


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The mantra is not talking about rolling the sky, it's just used in analogous comparision: निष्कलं निष्क्रिय शान्तं निरवद्यं निरञ्जनम् । अमृतस्य पर सेतुं दग्धेन्धनमिवानलम् ।। 19 यदा चर्मवदाकाशं वेष्टयिष्यन्ति मानवा । तदा देवमविज्ञाय दुःखस्यान्तो भविष्यति ।। 20 When men shall roll up space as if it were a piece of hide, then there will be an end ...


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There are many paths as there are many different temperaments of people and different understandings. There is no 'one' way. All the scriptures enjoin upon you to find your teacher - your teacher is the one that knows the path that is best suited for you. Sri Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita (IV. 34): Learn it by prostration, by inquiry, and by service. ...


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Atman. You've already said you've spent good time in understanding what is Atman or the self and the answer of "Who am I?" is already hidden in that thing. Now, since you've started to learn spiritual concepts like Atman, the question "According to Hinduism" would be more suitable if you ask "According to <specific philosophy like Vedanta>" Because ...


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It's not like that. The sole purpose of Hinduism is to show the path of true happiness to all beings. It's because happiness is the inherent desire of every jiva and until and unless one jiva becomes truly happy he will be doing various kinds of activities, good and bad and getting entangled by their reactions. It is just that the definition of happiness is ...


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Athithi Devo Bhava, which as you said roughly means "treat the unexpected guest as a god", originates from the Taittirya Upanishad of the Yajur Veda. Here's the whole hymn that it's taken from: After having taught the Veda, the teacher instructs the pupil: 'Say what is true! Do thy duty! Do not neglect the study of the Veda! After having brought to ...


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The Ganapati Atharvashirsha Upanishad, AKA the Ganesha Upanishad or Ganapati Upanishad, is a text which claims to be an Upanishad associated with the Atharvana Veda; here is what it says about itself in verses 16-18 (see pages 5-7 of this PDF file): He who studies this Atharva text moves towards Brahman.... This Atharva text should not be given to ...


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Dharma is one of those Sanskrit words that defy all attempts at an exact rendering in English or any other tongue. In the hymns of the Rig-Veda ( ऋग्वेद) the word Dharma seems to be used either as adjective or a noun (In the form "DHARMAN" (धर्मान्) generally NATURE of things and comes at least 56 times. It is very difficult to say what the exact meaning ...


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Sanyas Upanishads were written for male spiritual aspirants and thus talk of women being dangerous to males. Women are allowed to be monks. Just as women are dangerous for men who are spiritual aspirants similarly men are dangerous for women. I am astonished that some people believe that Hindu women are not allowed to be monks when there are women monk ...


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Yes, there is reference to the Tri GunAs in the Vedas. See the following Mantra from Atharva Veda (AV): Pundarikam navadwAram (1) Tribhir gunebhirAvritam (2) Tasmin yad yakshamAtmanvat (3) Tad vai brahmavido viduhu (4). ............. There is a nine-gated lotus (1), covered under three bands of GunAs (tribhir gunebhi) (2), in which lives ...


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Jnana or Jivanmukti is a state wherein, all the perceptions of duality is removed and the non-dual alone remains. In Isha Upanishad a Jnani is defined as a person "who perceives his Self in all objects and all objects in his Self/Atman" Basically, Atma-Jnana or Brahma-Jnana means, realizing first-hand that one's true identity is not body or mind, but is ...


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You should consult Taittiriya Upanishad part 2 which talks about the five Koshas surrounding the Atman. The five koshas are annamaya, pranamaya, manomaya, Vijnanamaya and Anandamaya Koshas. These 5 koshas or sheaths are organised into two bodies the Sthula sarira or the gross physical body and the sukshma or linga sarira also known as the subtle body. It is ...


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First, your interpretation of verse 7.5 is almost there, but not quite, which leads to your confusion. It is best to read verses 4-7 together and not separately. Verse 4 refers to the apparent division of Brahman, the Self, when seen through Maya. According to Sankara’s commentary on this verse, the elements referred to in the verse are the subtle elements ...


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Your question is about overcoming or wining Shadripus (षड्रिपु) meaning the six enemies of Human beings , as told in Hinduism. They are as follows. Lust (Sanskrit: Kama) (काम) Greed (Sanskrit: Lobha)(लोभ) Anger (Sanskrit: Krodha)(क्रोध) Pride (Sanskrit: Mada)(मद) Attachment (Sanskrit: Moha)(मोहा) Covetousness (Sanskrit: Matsarya)(मत्सर) These six enemies ...


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I think you are talking about 4th Prapathaka of Maitrayanai Upanishad. Maitrayania Upanishad is one of the important Upanishad. Maitrayania Upanishad 4th Prapathaka states: It was all Tamas – then impelled by the Supreme, it became uneven –Rajas compelled, becomes uneven. This all came out of Sattva, the conscious being, in every person, indicated by ...


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First of all, here is the Chandogya Upanishad verse in question: tasya yathā kapyāsaṃ puṇḍarīkamevamakṣiṇī tasyoditi nāma sa eṣa sarvebhyaḥ pāpmabhya udita udeti ha vai sarvebhyaḥ pāpmabhyo ya evaṃ veda ॥ Whose eyes are like blue lotus's, his name is ut, for he has risen (udita) above all evil. He also who knows this, rises above all evil. ...


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Yes, it is difficult to get the Vakya Bhashya of Adi Shankaracharya on Kena Upanishad, since most of the translations only covers the Pada Bhashya. I've found one pdf book that contains only Vakya Bhashya Sanskrit text of Adi Shankaracharya with English translation on Kena Upanishad from Chinmaya International Foundation You can download the pdf which ...


7

There are three levels of Rishis in Vajasaneyi Samhita. The Sarvanukrama Sukta of Vajasaneyi Samhita states the Rishi for whole Vajasaneyi Samhita is Rishi Vivasvan. He is the first level of Rishi. इषेत्वादि खं ब्रह्मान्त विवस्वान् ।। It was taught by Vivasvan (hence he is the Rishi). Thus the Rishi for whole Vajasaneyi Samhita is Rishi Vivasvan. ...


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As I discuss in this question, by far the most popular school of Hindu philosophy is the Vedanta school, which derives its tenets from the doctrines laid out in the Brahma Sutras, a work by Vyasa which summarizes and systematizes the philosophical teachings laid out in the Upanishads. It's not a verse-by-verse commentary of each Upanishad, but rather an ...


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The Badarayana-Vyasa Brahma Sutras are a compilation of extremely terse Sutras. These Sutras are impossible to understand without the commentary attached to them. There is no direct quote from any Upanishad in any of these Sutras. These Sutras are often not even complete sentences. It is the commentaries that claim that the Sutras are talking about ...


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Swami Vivekananda refers to the 3 pillars several times in his writings. One reference is Vol 3, p 327-328 of his Complete Works (lecture entitled "The Vedanta in All Its Phases"). But he refers to it as something being more or less already self-evident and never references a source. He says "All these Darshanas that you have ever seen or heard are based ...


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Chastity is a necessary prerequisite for Self-Realization. This is expounded in many of the scriptures. In Patanjali's Yoga Aphorisms, it is said that the first stage of Yoga is the practice of Yama and Niyama (do a search on Hinduism SE, these have been defined in prior questions). One of the practices of Yama is perfect chastity in thought, word, and deed. ...


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Swami Vishwananda has already given several references in support of continence. I am adding a Sri Ramakrishna quote on it: Sri Ramakrishna: "To be able to realize God, one must practise absolute continence. Sages like Sukadeva are examples of urdhavreta. Their chastity was absolutely unbroken. There is another class, who previously have had ...


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Good question sir. Here is an advaita view on this. According to this view, the jiva and Paramatma are one. Jnana Jnana means wisdom. Wisdom of what? Wisdom of your own True Nature is Jnana. You are not this body, nor are you the mind, nor the intellect, nor the individual ego. You are the Brahman, God. Adi Shankaracharya's Nirvana Shatakam Mano-...


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Chandogya Upanishad declaration on Ghora Angirasa and Devaki Putra Krishna: taddhaitadghor āṅgirasaḥ kṛṣṇāya devakīputrāyoktvovācāpipāsa eva sa babhūva so'ntavelāyāmetattrayaṃ pratipadyetākṣitamasyacyutamasi prāṇasam̐śitamasīti tatraite dve ṛcau bhavataḥ ॥ The meaning of this mantra as given by shrI shankara and shrI madhva differs from that of shrI ...


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Here's how the Dvaita philosopher Madhvacharya renders the portion you put in bold, in this excerpt from his commentary on the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad: But he worships any other god (than Brahman), he does not know. Similarly when one worships some other devata as Ever-present, Ever-full, Ever-existing knowledge (thinking that Brahman is devoid of ...


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