Q. I hear these terms Dvaita, Advaita, Vishistdvaita, Shuddhadvaita, and may be any other XYZdvaita, etc in most of the questions but I am not very sure what do they refer to.
There are six Darshan (षडदर्शन) i.e philosophy in Hinduism which are Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.
Among these six schools, Vedanta(वेदांत) is very popular ...
The answer is obvious, it is because we are not exactly the God, we are jiva, an energy of God. And because we are an energy of God, we are called as God by some. Just like fire and a spark of fire are essentially the same, so also God(Brahman) and us(Jiva) are essentially the same. But, just like fire is huge than a spark of fire and has more heat or energy,...
Vedas state "Sarvakhalvidam Brahman" which means "Everything is Brahman." So, everything is Brahman in the absolute level. Chandogya Upanishad states:
सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्म तज्जलानिति शान्त उपासीत अथ खलु क्रतुमयः पुरुषो यथाक्रतुरस्मिल्लोके पुरुषो भवति तथेतः प्रेत्य भवति स क्रतुं कुर्वीतः । [Chandogya Upanishad.]
III-xiv-1: Verily, all ...
Purva Mimamsa School in it's Purva Mimamsa Sutras gives very logical arguments to prove Eternity of Vedas. Actually these Arguments can also be used against Nastika school who hold Vedas are not eternal.
Quotes from Mahabharata, Ramayana, Puranas and other scripture to support Eternity of Vedas cannot be used as logic against Nastika school because ...
Here are the main philosophical schools discussed by Vyasa in the Brahma Sutras (which you can read here:
Vedanta: The Brahma Sutras are the defining text of Vedanta school, so in some sense all the Sutras are giving the views of the Vedanta school.
Samkhya: Kapila's Samkhya school seems to have been the most popular school of Hindu philosophy at the time, ...
As I discuss in this answer, the word Smartha originally just meant "follower of Smriti. (Hinduism has two sets of scripture, Shruti or "that which is heard" and Smriti or "that which is remembered.) But the Smartha came to denote the followers of the sect founded by Adi Shankaracharya, which he did in order to create a more streamlined version of Hinduism....
So are we really God?
Who are we?
Who is God?
What is our relation with God?
Different schools of Hinduism say different things about this concept.
Advaita (commonly called Non-Dualism) - Sri Adi Shankaracharya (believed to be incarnation of Lord Shiva)
According to this school of thought, there is only One who exists in this world, and that is God. There ...
Shakti Vishishtadvaita is the philosophy of a Shaivite sect known as Lingayatism, AKA Virashaivism, founded by the 12th century philosopher Basava. Note that the term "Shaivite" actually means something here; there are a lot of people who call themselves Shaivites, like Iyers for instance, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's ...
It's true that Brahman is conscious, and that Brahman is the one that gives both rewards and punishments, so in that sense it is the efficient cause of all suffering. But it is not being cruel or capricious in doing this; it is doing this in accordance with the law of Karma. Here is what Adi Shankaracharya says in his commentary on the Brahma Sutras:
It's because it was a separate debate. It's true that Mandana Misra's wife Ubhaya Bharati is said to have been the referree of the debate between Adi Shankaracharya and Mandana Misra. But this chapter of the Madhaviya Shankara Digvijaya, the traditional biography of Adi Shankaracharya, describes how after the debate is over, Ubhaya Bharati is resentful of ...
In brief, the situation is:
A rationalist has analyzed a text written in C++ into English because both look similar. He has critisized C++ for "bad grammar". Certain extremists are behind his life just because they think C++ grammar is cool!
what Bhagavan criticized in detail
what his arguments are
K. S. Bhagawan is an Indian rationalist, Kannada ...
Swami Vivekananda meant that a strong body can help you have the frame of mind needed to understand things like the Upanishads and Bhagavad Gita, and thus ultimately attain Jnana. Here's the quote in its original context:
First of all, our young men must be strong. Religion will come afterwards. Be strong, my young friends; that is my advice to you. You ...
One of the purest Advaitic texts is the Astavakra Samhita. This is the only book that Ramakrishna Paramahamsa kept in his room. Again, it is pure Advaita.
Another is the Pancadasi by Sri Vidyaranya Swami. He was the Sankaracharya of the Sringeri Math from 1377-1386. Considered one of the great commentators on Sankara and Advaita.
Another good Advaita text ...
You quoted from the Mahabharata this passage of text:
Meanwhile, the righteous-souled Suka, who had entered the
elements, had become their soul and acquired omnipresence,
answered his sire by uttering the monosyllable Bho in the form of an echo. At this, the entire universe of mobile and immobile
creatures, uttering the monosyllable Bho, echoed the answer ...
The mantra is not talking about rolling the sky, it's just used in analogous comparision:
निष्कलं निष्क्रिय शान्तं निरवद्यं निरञ्जनम् ।
अमृतस्य पर सेतुं दग्धेन्धनमिवानलम् ।। 19
यदा चर्मवदाकाशं वेष्टयिष्यन्ति मानवा ।
तदा देवमविज्ञाय दुःखस्यान्तो भविष्यति ।। 20
When men shall roll up space as if it were a piece of hide, then there will be an end ...
It's because Vyasa and Jaimini were working together. Vyasa and two of his disciples, Jaimini and Kasakritsna, together composed a unified work called the Mimamsa Shastra, designed to analyze the meaning of the Vedas in all its aspects. It consisted of 20 Adhyayas or chapters: the 12 Adhyayas of Jaimini's Purva Mimamsa Sutras, analyzing the Karma Kanda of ...
Sanyas Upanishads were written for male spiritual aspirants and thus talk of women being dangerous to males. Women are allowed to be monks. Just as women are dangerous for men who are spiritual aspirants similarly men are dangerous for women. I am astonished that some people believe that Hindu women are not allowed to be monks when there are women monk ...
Pure Advaita considers forms of God as unreal. Thus it does not matter what name the unreal Ishvara is called.
Shankara considers Isvara or Brahman with attributes as ultimately unreal. He writes in his commentary on Brahma Sutra Bhasya:
Since this Self is by nature Consciousness Itself, distinctionless,
beyond speech and mind, and can be taught by way ...
There is a common popular misconception in People that according to Advaita World doesn't exist at all. It is not true.
When we are deciding reality of things as per Advaita. Then, Advaita itself gives three level of reality to us:
1)Paramarthika Satyam/ Absolute Reality level
2)Vyavaharika Satyam/ Ishwara Shristi level
3)Pratibhasika Satyam/ Jeeva ...
First of all, here is the Chandogya Upanishad verse in question:
tasya yathā kapyāsaṃ puṇḍarīkamevamakṣiṇī
tasyoditi nāma sa eṣa sarvebhyaḥ pāpmabhya udita
udeti ha vai sarvebhyaḥ pāpmabhyo ya evaṃ veda ॥
Whose eyes are like blue lotus's, his name is ut, for he has risen (udita) above all evil. He also who knows this, rises above all evil.
What is Ishwara?
According to Sarva Vedanta Siddhanta Saara Sangraha (You can get Sanskti-Hindi version from Internet Archive).
verses 310-317 Ishvara
॥ १४ ॥ ईश्वरः॥
मायोपहितचैतन्यं साभासं सत्त्वबृंहितम् ।
सर्वज्ञत्वादिगुणकं सृष्टिस्थित्यन्तकारणम् ॥ ३१०॥
अव्याकृतं तदव्यक्तमीश इत्यपि गीयते ।
सर्वशक्तिगुणोपेतः सर्वज्ञानावभासकः ॥ ३११॥
There are no specific restrictions for reading and understanding Bhagavad Gita based on castes, differentiation apart from two cases, where Krishna himself emphasizes on to whom this Gita knowledge should not be spoken and to whom this knowledge shall be revealed
BG 18.67: This instruction should never be explained to those who are not austere or to those ...
Q. In the annals of Sanaatana Dharma why isn't there One Absolute Reality? Every "seer of truth" saw/interpreted the way they saw it.
Absolute Reality is only one but it is expressed differently because it can not be the topic/subject of mind or intellect!
Read the following Shruti quotes that say how it is beyond the of mind or intellect:
Apart from the works of Adi Sankara Bhagavatpada mentioned by Swami Vishwananda. I would like to say a few words. If you want to know about its philosophy like bird's view, there are many books available like The Great Equation, Enlightening Expositions: Philosophical Expositions of Sringeri Jagadguru Sri Abhinava Vidyatheertha Mahaswamigal , Didactic ...
Vishnu Purana in 6.5.74 states:
"ऐश्वर्यस्य समग्रस्य धर्मस्य यशसरिश्रयः।
ज्ञानवैराग्ययोश्चैव षण्णां भग इतीरणा ।।"
Complete splendor, virtue, glory, opulence, knowledge, dispassion - these six are known as bhaga.
One who possess these Bhaga quality is known as Bhagavan. And the following verses after it identify Bhagavan as Vãsudeva or Lord Vishnu. ...
Sanskrit word विवर्त means  transformation, more precisely  apparent form in Vedanta philosophy. Vivartavada means the doctrine of apparent transformation.
According to Adi Shankaracharya Jagat (word) is actually apparent transformation of Brahman under the effect of illusion. That means the transformation is only apparent (illusory/...
The spider in question is a Shiva Gana named Malyavan.
The Chola dynasty of kings is said to have sprung from the Surya Vamsa, at least according to this Wikipedia page.
The last king to be mentioned in the list is King Kotchenganan, who is incidentally one of the 63 Nayanars.
The list claims that the dynasty descended from Ikshvaku, through Muchukunda, ...