As the question is framed, I don't see why Hinduism needs to refute Islamic beliefs about its own scripture. None of Hinduism's tenets are affected by Islam's tenets.
The question of refutation comes when two or more opposing parties are contending the same issue. Such as when Advaitins, Vishishtadvaitins and Dvaitins all subscribe to the authority of the ...
'Samvāda' (संवादः) means conversation. In the Rig Veda samhitā, there are around 4 or 5 famous long conversations. Examples are:
Yama and Yami (RV 10.10) starting with "ओ चित्सखायं सख्या ववृत्यां"
Urvashi and Pururavā (RV 10.95) starting with "हये जाये मनसा तिष्ठ घोरे"
Devas and Agni (RV 10.51) starting with "महत्तदुल्बं स्थविरं तदा...
First, your question at the end is not correct. You state "But how do those who believe that the Vedic mantras are unauthored, like the followers of Vedanta and Mimamsa do, interpret these verses?" The followers of Vedanta is another way of saying the followers of the Uttara Mimamsa (or another way of saying it is the followers of Vyasa). I think ...
The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad outlines this in Chapter 3, Section 9, which consists of 28 verses. The complete chapter can be read here - https://www.wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/the-brihadaranyaka-upanishad/d/doc118360.html The first 9 verses are the essential verses...:
Then Vidagdha, the son of Śakala, asked him. ‘How many gods are there, Yājñavalkya?’ ...
In all logic and reasoning - 'proofs lie in the assertion, not in the negation'. In other words, you prove a positive, you can't prove a negative. You don't frame logical questions as - 'aliens have visited the earth, prove they haven't'. Any question formulated as such is unreasonable. The weight of any proof lies with the assertion. You say - 'prove aliens ...
This is vyahruthi mantra, bhoor, bhoova and swagha.. bhoor loka(7 worlds below earth bhoomandala including earth ) Bhoovar loka(space between swarga and earth) and swargha lokka(Other 7 worlds starting from heaven. The seven worlds are
Bhoo Loka Comprises
Is sannyasa a Vedic way of life? Is it recommended by the Vedas, the ten authentic Upanishads or Grhyasutras?
The idea that sannyasashrama is not sanctioned by the Vedas is an old idea held even by famous Rishis like Gautama and Bodhayana:
Gautama dharma sutras 3.36:
There is, however, only one order of life [Ashrama] according to the venerable teacher, ...
As you have said in your question there are 16 recensions or Shakhas of Shukla Yajurveda , and your query is -
how come there are 16 shakhas instead of one.? and Yajnavalkya learned all 16 shakhas from Surya deva. Second one is that all the 16 shishyas altered it and created their own shakha.
The exact answer of your question is given in a Srimad bhagavata ...
Srimad Bhagavatam 3.26.10
yat tat tri-guṇam avyaktaṁ
pradhānaṁ prakṛtiṁ prāhur
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: The unmanifested eternal combination of the three modes is the cause of the manifest state and is called pradhāna. It is called prakṛti when in the manifested stage of ...
B G. 15.16 dvaimuh purushho lokkae shra akshara yeva cha
Shra saravani bhoothani kutaaskhara uchyathye
There 2 types purusha/soul/jiva one is destructible and another is non destructible. All destructible bootha/jiva reach sky as their destination.
Adhyatmic interpertation: 2 types of jiva are Normal souls other is Lakshmi who is consort of sriman Narayana ...
There are already answers which tell the answer to your question. I impose a question: why are the contradictions or whatsoever you want to call it arise?
The answer is we humans interpret, compare and discriminate between science and vedas. Science and vedas must not be compared, they are two completely different things.
Science is modeling of universe ...
Science does not contradict religion in essential matters, simply because their aims are different.
The main aim of science is to understand the things of this world. It's concerned with the multiplicity of this world of things and the world and more broadly, this universe.
Whereas religion, and the Veda's in particular, are concerned with spiritual ...