Q. I hear these terms Dvaita, Advaita, Vishistdvaita, Shuddhadvaita, and may be any other XYZdvaita, etc in most of the questions but I am not very sure what do they refer to.
There are six Darshan (षडदर्शन) i.e philosophy in Hinduism which are Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.
Among these six schools, Vedanta(वेदांत) is very popular ...
Shakti Vishishtadvaita is the philosophy of a Shaivite sect known as Lingayatism, AKA Virashaivism, founded by the 12th century philosopher Basava. Note that the term "Shaivite" actually means something here; there are a lot of people who call themselves Shaivites, like Iyers for instance, but they're actually followers of Adi Shankaracharya's Smartha sect (...
Not just Chinna Jeeyar Swami, but all Sri Vaishnava Acharyas carry these three sticks. They are called the Tridanda, and they are carried by those who have taken up Tridandi Sanyasa, which is the type of Sanyasa that Sri Vaishnavas follow. The appearance of Sanyasis in general is described in this chapter of the Manu Smriti:
His hair, nails, and beard ...
You quoted from the Mahabharata this passage of text:
Meanwhile, the righteous-souled Suka, who had entered the
elements, had become their soul and acquired omnipresence,
answered his sire by uttering the monosyllable Bho in the form of an echo. At this, the entire universe of mobile and immobile
creatures, uttering the monosyllable Bho, echoed the ...
Vishnu Purana in 6.5.74 states:
"ऐश्वर्यस्य समग्रस्य धर्मस्य यशसरिश्रयः।
ज्ञानवैराग्ययोश्चैव षण्णां भग इतीरणा ।।"
Complete splendor, virtue, glory, opulence, knowledge, dispassion - these six are known as bhaga.
One who possess these Bhaga quality is known as Bhagavan. And the following verses after it identify Bhagavan as Vãsudeva or Lord Vishnu. ...
The following article by Balarama Murty Vempaty discusses the three philosophies - Dvaita, Vishishtadvaita and Advaita. It also talks about the role of Karma, Gnana and Bhakti in these philosophies.
In the book, 'Hanumat Vibhuti', Sri Rama asks Hanuman to describe
their relationship. Hanuman responds:
"deha bhudhaya dasoham, jiva bhudhaya ...
Because Swami Vivekananda considered them as three steps in Spiritual progress. First step is Dvaita (dualism), second step VisistAdvaita (qualified non-dualism) and third step is Advaita (non-dualism) (final state of experience). He also said all three complement each other but do not oppose.
Swami Vivekananda says the following in Vedanta Philosophy - ...
The Visistadvaita interpretation of the phrase "one only without a second" is that Sriman Narayana is unique and no other being is equal to him, not that no other being exists. Here is what Yamunacharya, who was Ramanujacharya's guru's guru, says in his Siddhitrayam:
To say that the Chola king, now reigning in this country, is all supreme and without a ...
Presumably by 'scripture', you're referring to one of the ancient texts belonging to one of Shruti, Smriti, Itihasa, Purana and not the works of recent Acharyas. If that is the case, the term 'visistadvaita' cannot be found in the scriptures and it is a relatively modern (post-Ramanuja) invention. Ramanuja himself is not known to have used the term in any of ...
The key principles of Vishishtadvaita are:
There are three entities: cit (jivatma), acit (prakriti) and Isvara (Parabrahman).
Parabrahman is Sriman Lakshmi Narayana who has infinite auspicious attributes.
The entire universe of cit and acit form the body of Parabrahman and they are dependent upon Him for their existence.
Surrender is the way to attain ...
Sri Vishishtadvaita is the main principle of Sri-Vaisnav Sampradaye.and it is very beautiful described and easily can understand by anyone.
There are total three famous opinions in Vaisnav Samprdaye:
1. Advaita - Sri Sankracharya
2. Dvaita - Sri Madvacharaya
3. Vishishtadvaita - Sri Ramanujacharya
There are total three types of Shrutis in Vedas/Scriptures:
Actually Ramanujacharya has written three commentaries on Brahma Sutra:
Sri Bhashhya (श्री भाष्य)
Veanta Sara (वेदान्त सार)
Vedanta Dipa (वेदान्त दीप)
Apart from Sri Bhashya, One of the important work is Vedartha Samgraha (वेदार्थ संग्रह).
श्रीभाष्यकृद-उपन्यस्तो यः श्रीशैलपतेः पुरः ।
वेदार्थसङ्ग्रहस्यास्य कुर्मः तात्पर्यदीपिकाम् ॥
Partial Answer (for one Mahavakya Tat Tvam Asi)
Note: I recommend going through overview of the similarity and difference between Vedanta philosophies.
The debate for interpretation is due to the difference in the doctrine of Vedantic philosophies viz. Advaita, Vishithadvaita, Dvaita etc. for the relationship between Brahman and Jiva.
Tat Tvam Asi
We find in the Sri Bhashya introduction the explanation of how to interpret such passages from the Vishnu Purana.
Acharya Ramanuja writes here in George Thibaut's translation
Also the sloka beginning 'Owing to the difference of the holes of the flute' (Vi. Pu. II, 14, 32) only declares that the inequality of the different Selfs is owing not to their ...
Ramanujacharya discusses this Kaushitaki Upanishad verse in this section of the Sri Bhashya, commenting on Adhyaya 2 Pada 3 Sutra 41 of the Brahma Sutras:
[Objection:] “But there is a scriptural text.--'He (the Lord) makes him whom he wishes to lead up from these worlds do a good deed, and the same makes him whom he wishes to lead down from these worlds ...
Brahman is Nirguna is a statement of Brahma Sutra. As long as I know all the Vaishnav Acharyas agree on this. However as I discuss in this question of mine; the interpretation of Nirguna is different as per different Acharyas and their proposed philosophies.
here is what Shripad Ramanuja interprets Nirguna as:
Ramanujacharya's Sri Bhashya interprets ...
In his book, A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, by Dr. Prof. Chandradhar Sharma, addresses these attacks on Advaita. Venkatanatha (also known as Vedantadeshika) (a follower of Ramanuja) in his Shatadusani, levels 66 charges on Advaita. Prof. Sharma addresses these in the following manner.
Prof. Sharma writes (pp 361-2):
…[charge] If Brahman is a ...
According to Swami Vivekananda, the first step is Dvaita, second is Vishishtâdvaita and the final is Advaita.
The Complete Works/Volume 1/Lectures And Discourses/The Vedanta Philosophy:
The Vedanta philosophy, as it is generally called at the present day, really comprises all the various sects that now exist in India. Thus there have been various ...
Swami Vireswarananda has done 2 translations of the Brhama-Sutras with Sanskrit text, English rendering, and commentary. One is a translation of Sankaracharya's Brahma-Sutra and the other is the Brahma-Sutra Sri-Bhasya of Ramanujacharya. In the Sri-Bhasya translation, he has an Introduction where he explains in detail the agreements and differences between ...
Not sure if this is what you're looking for but this research paper - THEORY OF CAUSATION IN VEDANTA PHILOSOPHY mentions the following on page 17-18:
Pratibimbavada: Advaita philosophy maintains the relation of reflection (Pratibimba) between the jiva and Brahman. The reflection of infinite consciousness in the mirror of Avidya is jiva. In the commentary ...
There is only one Atma from the standpoint of Atma. It is only through Maya, that the Atma, which is also called as Brahman, assumes various bodies and various forms. The jiva and the ishwara are both Atma itself that has become associated with different limiting principles called Upadhi.
Only from the standpoint of the world, there are innumerable number ...
Here I am trying to figure out answer of your question from Vishnu-Sastranam Strotram, Bhagvad Gita & Sri Ramanujacharaya (Vishitaadvaita) Phiosophy.
So, Let's first we look-out the Sloka
Translation of particualr Sloka of Visnu-Sajasrnam Strotram:
jīvō vinayitāsākṣī mukundōmitavikramaḥ |
Jivo:One who as the Kshetragya or knower of the ...
Here is what the Sri Vaishnava Acharya Parashara Bhattar says in his commentary on the Vishnu Sahasranamam:
Individual souls are called Jivas. The Lord redeems Jivas and makes them live in Him. He makes them satvatas (devotees) and infuses spiritual life into them.
Satvata is another term for Bhagavata or follower of Pancharatra. (See my answer here ...
Here is what Ramanujacharya says in this section of the Sri Bhashya, in the course of refuting the Advaita belief that we should believe that duality is unreal on the basis of scripture despite it contradicting what we perceive:
In cases of Scripture conflicting with Perception, Scripture is not stronger. The True cannot be known through the Untrue. With ...
You're talking about the well known "Problem of Evil" in Western Philosophy.
This is discussed in detail in the Vedanta Sutras, in particular in the sutra वैषम्यनैर्घृण्ये न, सापेक्षत्वात्, तथा हि दर्शयति. The basic position is that it is not possible to blame God for evil on account of partiality or cruelty because He is an impartial observer and ...
According to Vishishtadvaita, there are nine types of relation a jiva enjoys with Lord Vishnu which I am quoting from here :
Pitra-Putra Sambandha: the relation between a father and a child.
Rakshaka-Rakshya sambandha: the relation between savior and the saved.
Shesha-Sheshi sambandha: the relation between owner and the thing owned.
Ramanujacharya explicitly addresses this objection in his work known as the Vedartha Sangraha. He says this:
(The opponent objecting to the concept of service in the state of moksha): ‘It is maintained that absolute subordination is the highest joy for the soul. This is
opposed to the understanding of the whole world. All sentient beings