Are there any scriptures (Dharma Shastra-s) or Hindu saints who have talked about patriotism?
Related: This post discusses specific to Kshatriya class, Martyr concept in Hinduism
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The Vedas, in particular, do not have a limited (narrow) vision of patriotism. The Vedas clearly say that we all are the children of Mother Earth. Hence, we should love the whole earth as our motherland and not just our own country.
MAta Bhumih Putro Aham PrithivyAha .
The earth is my mother, I her son.
Atharva Veda Samhita, Kanda 12, Sukta 1, Mantra 12.
In Hinduism, Earth and Bharatvarsh is considered as mother. And, in general, everyone love their mother.
Vishnu Purana says:
उत्तरम् यत् समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रे: चैव दक्षिणम्।
वर्षम् तद् भारतम् नाम भारती यत्र संतति:||
THE country that lies north of the ocean, and south of the snowy mountains, is called Bhárata, for there dwelt the descendants of Bharata.
Earth is also known as consort of Lord Vishnu, so very respectable. There is a shloka regarding this.
समुद्रवसने देवि पर्वतस्तनमण्डले ।
विष्णुपत्नि नमस्तुभ्यं पादस्पर्शं क्षमस्वमे ॥
Samudra-Vasane Devi Parvata-Stana-Mannddale |
Vissnnu-Patni Namas-Tubhyam Paada-Sparsham Kssamasva-Me ||
1: (Oh Mother Earth) The Devi Who is having Ocean as Her Garments and Mountains as Her Bosom,
2: Who is the Consort of Sri Vishnu, I Bow to You; Please Forgive me for Touching You with my Feet.
Vishnu Purana also praise Bharatavarsh as:
गायन्ति देवा: किल गीतिकानि, धन्यास्तु ते भारतभूमिभागे।
स्वर्गापवर्गास्पद - मार्गभूते, भवन्ति भूय: पुरुषा: सुरत्वात्।।
The gods themselves exclaim, "Happy are those who are born, even from the condition of gods, as men in Bhárata-varsha, as that is the way to the pleasures of Paradise, or the greater blessing of final liberation.
There are shlokas in Hindu scriptures which may be interpreted as patriotic.
It seems that the gods sing songs to this purport. Those who live in this part of the world called Bharata are in fact blessed. In order to enjoy the fruits of heaven and salvation they are born as human beings, casting off their deity-hood.
[Garuda Purana, Dharma Khanda, chapter I]
Dharma is greater than patriotism. Patriotism is not to be conflated with Dharma.
This is best explained with the help of Vibhishina’s siding with Sri Rama (i.e. Dharma) instead of Ravana.
Before the was Vibhishina insisted on returning Sita Mata as it was the right thing to do
किम् च राक्षस राजस्य रामेण अपकृतम् पुरा |
आजहार जन स्थानाद् यस्य भार्याम् यशस्विनः || ६-९-१३
"What offence was done earlier to the king of demons by the illustrious Rama, whose wife that he bore away from Janasthana?"
न नः क्षमम् वीर्यवता तेन धर्म अनुवर्तिना |
वैरम् निरर्थकम् कर्तुम् दीयताम् अस्य मैथिली || ६-९-१६
"It is not appropriate to make enmity uselessly with Rama, who is valiant and who follows righteousness. Let Seetha be given away to him."
Ravana, Indrajit and other Rakshasas ofcourse didn't agree with Vibhishana, and Ravana even accused him of being a traitor to his kinsmen
जानामि शीलम् ज्ञातीनाम् सर्व लोकेषु राक्षस |
हृष्यन्ति व्यसनेष्वेते ज्ञातीनाम् ज्ञातयः सदा || ६-१६-३
"O, demon! I know the conduct of kinsmen in all the worlds. These kinsmen always are rejoiced at the calamities of their kinsmen"
प्रधानम् साधकम् वैद्यम् धर्म शीलम् च राक्षस |
ज्ञातयो ह्यनमन्यन्ते शूरम् परिभवन्ति च || ६-१६-४
"O, demon! The kinsmen indeed insult and even humiliate their kinsman, who is an effective leader, a person of education and right conduct and a valiant man."
नित्यम् अन्योन्य सम्हृष्टा व्यसनेष्वाततायिनः |
प्रच्चन्न हृदया घोरा ज्ञातयस् तु भय आवहाः || ६-१६-५
"The horrible kinsmen with their concealed thoughts and treacherous minds, terrific ones as they are, always rejoice each other in adversities."
विद्यते गोषु सम्पन्नम् विद्यते ज्ञातितो भयम् |
विद्यते स्त्रीषु चापल्यम् विद्यते ज्ञातितो भयम् || ६-१६-९
"There is wealth in cows. There is fear of kinsmen. There is fickleness in women. There is austerity in Brahmins."
Vibhishana found the above accusations insulting and left Lanka to side with Sri Rama.
Bottom line is that nation is a tool for dharma and not the end goal in the absence of dharma. Country is equated with the dominant polity of that time (as seen in the above case of Vibhishana and Ravana) For the sake of supporting your country (which by extension becomes the support of dominant polity) you shouldn't compromise dharma. Only when polity is conducive is then the phrase "जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी" (One's Mother and Motherland are more glorious than the heaven) becomes meaningful
The best mention I think is the one mentioned by The Destroyer in comment :
जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी ||
meaning :One's Mother and Motherland are more glorious than the heaven.
Reference : According to Wikipedia, this line is from the Valmiki-Ramayana :https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janani_Janmabhoomischa_Swargadapi_Gariyasi