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The mantra is

Srikrishnaya Yadavendraya Gyana Mudraya Yogine Nathaya Rukminishaya Namo Vedanta Vedine.

The entire mantra is here: https://stotranidhi.com/en/sree-krishna-ashtottara-satanama-stotram-in-english/

Please do share a link to the Sanskrit text too.

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Srikrishnaya Yadavendraya Gyana Mudraya Yogine Nathaya Rukminishaya Namo Vedanta Vedine.

What is the meaning of this mantra from Shri Krishna Ashtotara Shatanama Stotram?

'My salutations(Namo) to the Bhagwan who is Parbrahman & holder of Srī(ŚrīKrishnaya), to the kings amongst/of Yadvas(Yadvendraya), to the one who is Gyana mudra that yogis show or to whom, who himself is embodiment of Gyana(Gyana mudraya), to the master of Yogis(Yogine Nathaya),to the consort of Rukamini devi(Rukaminishaya), to the knower of Vedanta (Vedanta Vedine).'

What is the significance of this mantra?

This mantra can be chanted by anyone who is getting delayed in marriage or in conceiving.

To understand the mantra in depth let us understand it by taking each word.

Sri Krishnaya - To ŚrīKrishña

As per some Vaishnava traditions like that of Ramanandi sampradaya or Pushti marga, Sri is attached with Ràm & Krishna respectively making it as a single word (ŚrīRām or SrīKrishña) to signify that the Prabhu is the holder of Śrī (Srī of vedas)

श्रीश्च ते लक्ष्मीश्च पत्नयावहोरात्रे (Shukla Yajurved 31/22)
"Oh Paratpara Purush, You have two wives Srī & Lakshmi."

Mahabharata,

“The word krs is the attractive feature of the Prabhu's existence, and na means spiritual pleasure. When the verb krs is added to affix na, it becomes “Krishna”, which indicates the Absolute Truth.”

Thus, here ShriKrishna is the extoled as Parbrahm who is the Natha of Srī thus ruling whole Brahmanda.

Yadvendraya - To the King of Yadvas.
(Yadav + Indra)

Here Bhagwan is addressed as Yadvendra & not as Yadavanandana. This is remarkable.
As, again in Vaishnava sampradaya, 'Bhaav' is of the highest priority (eg, Sakha bhaav, Dasya bhaav, Vatsalya bhaav, etc). Whenever if Gopal or Ràm is seen as King, thus his aishwarya bhaav is contemplated upon. He is seen as the king, who is eager to give sukha to his subjects (devotees).
(Dwarka & Ayodhya are Aishwarya Sthala.)

Thus the significance of the above two words can be taken here as,
Describing prabhu as King & holder of Srī, the composer of this Ashtottaram shows that, Madhav is the Nourisher of universe as ŚrīKrishna & also the king of Yadvas (Yadvendra). This shows tho, Hari is the Brahmandanayaka, yet he took avatar as a king on earth, to personally look after the welfare of his subjects & nourish them. Thus, showing both his Kripa & Mahima. Or it can also be taken as Nirguna Brahman (Srikrishna) who became Saguna Brahma (Yadvendra) for his devotees on the basics of previously mentioned verses.

Krishna Upanishad, also supports the same interpretation as concluded here,

stuvate satataṁ yastu so'vatīrṇo mahītale  ।
vane vṛndāvane krīḍaṅgopagopīsuraiḥ saha॥ 6॥
The ulimate prabhu, whom (sages and devas) celebrate without end, came down to earth to enjoy His leelas in the woods of Vrindāvan with saints, Gopas and Gopis.

krīḍate bālako bhūtvā pūrvavatsumahodadhau  ।
saṁhārārthaṁ ca śatrūṇāṁ rakṣaṇāya ca saṁsthitaḥ॥ 17॥
Thus, the Bhagwan become a child and had fun as ever in a big ocean (milk). ShriKrishna appeared to eliminate their enemies and protect (his devotees).

Gyana Mudraya - To him who is Gyana Mudra.

This particular adjective can be taken as, who literally is Gyanamudra (click here), or as alternatively can be taken as the all knower himself, sarvagynata. (Gyanamudra is rare alternative used for Gyanamurti in shastras i.e. the embodiment of Gyan.)
Now, to understand the former interpretation, let's see this way. Whenever a yogi sits in dhyana his displays Gyana mudra. Krishna himself is that Gyana mudra thus, hinting that, he is the true cause for the arousal of Gyana (wisdom, consciousness, and knowledge) in the yogi.

Bhagwad geeta 7.10,

बीजं मां सर्वभूतानां विद्धि पार्थ सनातनम् |
बुद्धिर्बुद्धिमतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम् || 10||
O Arjun, know that I am the eternal seed of all beings. I am the intellect of the intelligent, and the splendor of the glorious.

The latter can be explained as ShriKrishna himself is Brahmana thus, he is embodiment of all wisdom, knowledge, conciousness etc.

Gopala Tapini Upanishad,

सच्चिदानंदरुपाय कृष्णायाक्लष्टकारिणे।
नमो वेदांतवेद्याय गुरवे बुद्धिसाक्षिणे।।
I offer obeisances to Krishna, the form of eternity, knowledge, and bliss, whose every act is wonderful, who is the object of knowledge identified by the Vedånta, and who is the guru, the witness present in the intelligence.

नमो विज्ञानरूपाय परमानन्दरूपिणे।
कृष्णाय गोपीनाथाय गोविंदाय नमो नमः।।
I offer salutations to Krishna, the Natha of the gopîs, the master of the cows and cowherds. He is the embodiment of realized knowledge and possesses a form of supreme bliss.

Nrisimha Uttara Tapaniya Upanishad says the same,

He alone is Lord of all beings, one who knows everything, one who resides in everything, one who is the root cause of everything and one where all beings which were born meet their end.

In one of the commentaries on Gopala Tapini it says,

The jñåna-mudrå refers to his silence, for as shruti says,

‘He spoke without words’ (अवचनेनैव प्रोवाच)

Yogine nathay- To the Natha (lord) of Yogis.

ShriKrishna is meditated by yogis, for he is Viratpurusha as extoled in Vedas & various Upanishads.

Gopala Tapini Upanishada,

sa eṣa sarvātmakaḥ ।
sa eva mumukṣubhirdhyeyaḥ ।
sa eva mokṣapradaḥ ।
He is a subject of meditation for those who yearn for liberation.

Bhagwad geeta,

योगिनामपि सर्वेषां मद्गतेनान्तरात्मना ।
श्रद्धावान्भजते यो मां स मे युक्ततमो मतः ॥
Of all yogis, those whose minds are always absorbed in Me, and who engage in devotion to Me with great faith, them I consider to be the highest of all.

पुण्यो गन्ध: पृथिव्यां च तेजश्चास्मि विभावसौ |
जीवनं सर्वभूतेषु तपश्चास्मि तपस्विषु ||
I am the pure fragrance of the Earth, and the brilliance in fire. I am the life-force in all beings, and the penance of the ascetics.

Rukmanishay - To the ish (nath) of Rukamini.

In subtule sense Rukmini devi represents one of the Ashtasiddhis (as being one of the Ashtabharyas). Also, being avtaar of Lakshmi devi. The composer once again hints that Krishna is the master of all Srī as mentioned before.

Namo - I salute

Vedanta Vedine- To the one who knows Vedanta

This referance made here shows the lord as knower of all shastras in lay terms. As, all shastras give a high road at Vedanta.

Bhagwat Geeta, 15.15,

सर्वस्य चाहं हृदि सन्निविष्टो मत्तः स्मृतिर्ज्ञानमपोहनं च।
वेदैश्च सर्वैरहमेव वेद्यो वेदान्तकृद्वेदविदेव चाहम्।।15।।
I am seated in the hearts of all living beings, and from Me come memory, knowledge, as well as forgetfulness. I alone am to be known by all the Vedas, am the author of the Vedant, and the knower of the meaning of the Vedas.

Thus, when Krishna himself is Vedamurti & author of Vedas, then why won't he know it all? Isn't like showing Sun a lamp, by calling Krishna as Vedanta Vedine?
This question might spark to some, so as it did to me too.
Thus, upon looking at shastras the answer that came out was simple, this is to make us aware that ShriKrishna is Parbrham himself, as we under Maya might think him to be just like some layman of neighborhood, with two hands & two feet. Just, as many people do today.

Krishna Upanishad explains this,

goparūpo hariḥ sākṣānmāyāvigrahadhāraṇaḥ  ।
durbodhaṁ kuhakaṁ tasya māyayā mohitaṁ jagat॥ 9॥
Hari, appeared in its original form as a cowherd boy. World misled and confused by His illusory energy was unable to recognize his true identity.

durjayā sā suraiḥ sarvairdhṛṣṭirūpo bhavedvijaḥ  ।
rudro yena kṛto vaṁśastasya māyā jagatkatham॥ 10॥
Neither of devas could overwhelm the bhagwan's energy Māyā. Due to his energy the Yoga-Māyā, Brahma appeared as a stick and Shiva as a flute. How the Krishna's energy Māyā could deceive the entire universe?

balaṁ jñānaṁ surāṇāṁ vai teṣāṁ jñānaṁ hṛtaṁ kṣaṇāt  ।
śeśanāgo bhavedrāmaḥ kṛṣṇo brahmaiva śāśvatam  ॥ 11॥
Knowledge is power of devas. Krishna’s energy Māyā withdraws this knowledge in an instant. Śeṣa-nāga (the divine snake) appeared in the form of Lord Balarāma & Krishna appeared in his eternal Brahm form.

Thus, as said ŚrīKrishña is eternal Parbrahma who descended to earth.

Coming to the queries in comment.

Kindly explain the next two lines: "Imam mantram mahadevi.........sarvapriyatamo bhavet"? 

This is the Fhalshruti, that Mahadeva narrated to devi, as appearing in Nardapancharatra.

Imam Mantram Mahadevi Japanneva                  Divaashinam/ Sarvagrahaanugrahbhaaksarvapriyatamo bhavet.
One should repeat this Mantra, O gentle lady, day and night. He shall have the blessings of all planets; he shall be a favourite unto all.

How this is relevant with the meaning of the mantra?

Already as what we read above can be applied here.
Srīkrishna is Brahmanda nayaka, King amongst Yadavas. Thus, pointing that he can provide anything that one wishes for, as this universe is his play.
The fhalashruti says, the grahas bless the person who chants this mantra.
This can be explained from the as smriti says,

Having worshipped you, one worships all deities.

Thus, those who do namaskar with this mantra to Krishna indirectly worship every deity in cosmos. Thus, Grahas too are included in it.

Further as the mantra says, he is Gyana mudraya, Yogine nathaya.
Thus, he himself is cause of all Gyana & Maya. If so, don't u think he can charm everyone to favour his devotee?
Smritis once again conform this that Krishna is biased towards his devotees,

Sadabhaktapakshine
(Always by the side of devotees)

Thus, signifying he always keeps his devotee at upper hand, by making him dear to all.

Mantra has been presented in an old Kannada book as a means for wish fulfillment, specifically for unmarried girls to find a husband.

Yes, a female (even males) can truly chant this to get married & win favour of all. As she becomes, to be favourite of everyone by chanting this particular mantra. The name Rukaminishaya is potent force to make this happen. As it mean the beloved of Rukamini.

And the further Fhalashruti can explain this better,

Putra poutrehi parivritah
Sarva Siddhi samruddhimaan
He shall be surrounded by sons and grandsons. He shall be prosperous with all achievements. 

Now, it is understood that those unmarried or who can't conceive can surely chant the mantra for desired benifit.
It's a kind of Sarvamohan mantra (captivating or charming all)& Sarvaishtprada mantra (fulfiller of all desires)

Thus, mantras are not just simple play of words, every word is perfectly put. Hypothetically for, eg. if Shiva had replaced the same mantra with Yadunandanay & Yashodapranay, immediately the one who chant could get progenies. Thus, every word is the driving factor for particular Kama.

The link for sanskrit version of the stotram, https://stotranidhi.com/hi/sree-krishna-ashtottara-satanama-stotram-in-sanskrit/

कालिकार्पणमस्तु ।🌺

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    I suggest you: keep the summary at the top so that users can grasp quickly what the answer is, and then the users interested in more details can go through the entire answer.
    – hanugm
    Aug 1, 2022 at 17:35
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    @hanugm sure will add that. Thanks to suggest about the same :) Aug 1, 2022 at 17:37
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    @curiousseeker sure, will edit the answer, & towards the end add with what u have asked :) Aug 2, 2022 at 4:37
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    @curiousseeker edited :-) Aug 2, 2022 at 9:06
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    @Chamundadas- This is wonderfully presented by you! I'm so grateful. Kaalikarpanamastu. Aug 2, 2022 at 14:06

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