Who was the original owner of Vijaya bow?
However it is wielded by Indra Dev, Parashurama and Karna. Who created this bow?
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Vijaya is a celestial bow made by divine architect Vishwakarma for Indra. This was later handed down to Shiva and then Parashurama. Parashu Rama who was satisfied with Karna gifted that bow to him.
On the 17th day, Karna approached Duryodhana. He says that he would slay Arjuna on that day or he would die in the hands of Arjuna. In this conversation, he compares his powers and Arjuna's powers. He talks about his bow Vijaya and says how it is superior to Arjuna's Gandiva.
In physical strength, in courage, in knowledge of (weapons), in prowess, O Bharata, in aiming, Savyasaci is never my equal. My bow, called Vijaya, is the foremost of all weapons (of its kind). Desirous of doing what was agreeable (to Indra), it was made by Vishakarman (the celestial artificer) for Indra. With that bow, O king, Indra had vanquished the Daityas. At its twang the Daityas beheld the ten points to be empty. That bow, respected by all, Sakra gave to Bhrigu's son (Rama). That celestial and foremost of bows Bhrigu's son gave to me. With that bow I will contend in battle with the mighty-armed Arjuna, that foremost of victorious warriors, like Indra fighting with the assembled Daityas. That formidable bow, the gift of Rama, is superior to Gandiva. It was with that bow that the Earth was subjugated thrice seven times (by Bhrigu's son). With that bow given to me by Rama I will contend in battle with the son of Pandu.
Excerpt from Section 31 Karna Parva .
Karna here says that it is given to Parashurama directly by Indra. But it is not direct. Lord Shiva also used it for a brief period of time. In the Atharva Veda, Kanda 15 Sukta 1,
He grew, he became great, he became Mahādeva.
5 He gained the lordship of the Gods. He became Lord.
He became Chief Vrātya. He held a bow, even that Bow of Indra.
When Parashurama worshipped Shiva, Shiva was impressed and gave chariot, arrows, armour and the bow Vijaya. From Chapter 25, Upodghata Parva of Brahmanda Purana:
abhedyamajaraṃ divyaṃ dṛḍhajyaṃ vijayaṃ dhanuḥ /
sarvaśastrasahaṃ citraṃ kavacaṃ ca mahādhanam // BndP_2,25.41 //
He gave an unaging (ever-new) unbreakable divine bow (named) Vijaya, with firm bow string, with firm bow string. He gave him a costly wonderful coat of mail that could withstand all types of weapons.
It is unknown what happened to this bow after the death of Karna. It is not mentioned in the Mahabharata.