Yes, without Prana-pratishtha being done, if Puja is done, whether on idols, images or Yantras, such Pujas do not succeed as Lord Shiva says:
Sakala-kritya tat-prAnAn samuddipyAndriyAni cha |
PratishthApyArchayed-devi chAnyathA nishphalam bhavet ||
Devi! The deity must be gone through the process of Sakalaikarana, the
Prana and Indriyas are to be established and energized before
performing the Puja; Otherwise, the worship results in failure.
KulArnava Tantram 6-80
And, in just the previous verses of the same Chapter, Lord Shiva gives the list of ten places, where it is allowed to perform deity worship.
Linga SthandilaVahnyamvusurpa Kubhyapateshu Cha |
Muddhni Hrudi VA Dasha KirtitA ||
Eshu SthAneshu Devesi Yajanthi
Paramam ShivAm |
ArupAm Rupinim KritvA Karma KAndaratA NarAha ||
The worshiper visualizes the Formless Devi Parama Shiva in Form and
adores Her in the linga, sign-symbol, altar, Fire, Water, winnowing
fan, wall, image/idol , Mandala (diagram), plank, in the head or in
the heart. These ten places are known to be the different places of
Kularnava Tantram, Chapter 6, Verses 74-75.
(Here, the word "pata" is used for image)
So, the verse 6-80 is applicable for all the allowed modes of worship (mentioned in 6-74) including the one done in an image. Therefore, prana pratishtha is required in all such cases of worship.
And, the prana pratishtha process is the same whether one is using an idol or image or a Yantra for the object of worship. They all involve Chakur-dana, regular installing the Indriyas, Prana etc..
As regards, what kind of images are not acceptable, this answer provides the details- https://hinduism.stackexchange.com/a/28954/4732
[Lord Sadashiva says] The wise man should not worship the image of a
Deva which is broken or is holed, or which has lost a limb, or has
been touched by a leper, or has fallen on unholy ground (100). The
image of a Deva with missing limbs, or which is broken or has holes in
it, should be consigned to water. If the image has been made impure by
touch, it should be consecrated, and then worshipped (101). The
Mahapithas and Anadi-lingas are free from all deficiencies, and these
should always be worshipped for the attainment of happiness by each
worshipper as he pleases (102).
Mahanirvana Tantram Chapter 14